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Flashcards in CNS Part 4 Deck (38)
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1

2 most common forms of dementia

Alzheimer's and vascular

2

age of late onset Alzheimer's

after 65

3

age of early onset Alzheimer's

before 65

4

age of family members with familial form of Alzheimer's

before age 50

5

characteristic abnormalities found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (2)

amyloid plaques and Neurofibrillary tangles

6

The neurofibrillary tangles are found inside neurons and consist of insoluble twisted fibers made up of ...

tau protein

7

in Alzheimer’s disease, the tau protein is abnormal, causing ...

microtubular structures collapse.

8

In ... , also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID), micro-infarctions and areas of low blood flow damage brain cells with a resultant loss of neuronal function.

vascular dementia

9

Increased ventricular size and diminished volume of grey and white matter is a finding common to

all forms of dementia.

10

cerebral atrophy with Pick's disease is lobar and typically involves the ... lobes

frontal and temporal

11

This atrophy is often referred to as being "knife-like" in appearance.

Pick's disease

12

What parts of the brain does Parkinson's mainly affect?

substantia nigra and the locus ceruleus

13

the characteristic lesions found within the cytoplasm of neurons in Parkinson's

Lewy Body

14

most common demyelinating disease.

Multiple Sclerosis

15

New inflammatory lesions can be visualized on MRI scans with gadolinium contrast. Focal gadolinium enhanced lesions correspond to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and acute inflammatory changes with macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration, edema, and demyelization.

Multiple Sclerosis

16

These areas usually contain dense infiltrates of foamy macrophages in association with scattered large oligodendrocytes and enlarged astrocytes.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

17

usually iatrogenic in origin and is due to overly rapid correction of hyponatremia.

Central pontine myelinolysis

18

Pathologically, myelin is destroyed but neurons and axons are typically spared. This pattern of damage is the opposite to the findings seen with infarction/ stroke.

Central pontine myelinolysis

19

In children, ~70% of brain tumors are located... the tentorium (in the posterior fossa) whereas in adults, ~70% of tumors are found ... the tentorium.

below; above

20

most prevalent brain tumors found in children

astrocytic: glioblastomas, followed by medulloblastomas, ependymomas and craniopharyngiomas.

21

In adults, the most prevalent brain tumors are

metastatic tumors followed by astrocytic tumors and meningiomas.

22

The four major classes of primary brain tumors are

Meningiomas, Gliomas, Neuronal tumors, Poorly differentiated neoplasms

23

predominantly benign tumors of adults, attached to the dura.

meningiomas

24

where meningiomas arise

arachnoid

25

malignant tumors of the glial cells of the brain and account for 30-40% of all primary intracranial tumors.

gliomas

26

They occur predominantly in the cerebral hemispheres, but the brain stem and cerebellum are frequent locations in children, and they are also found in the spinal cord.

gliomas

27

The most common types of gliomas

astrocytomas

28

Tumor cells resemble normal or reactive astrocytes. They can be stellate, spindle-shaped with fiber like processes, or plump with a large eosinophilic cytoplasmic mass

astrocytomas

29

most malignant form of astrocytoma

glioblastoma multiforme

30

It occurs most frequently in middle aged adults. Its most common sites are the frontal and temporal lobes, but it may occur at any age and involve any part of the CNS.

glioblastoma multiforme

31

Most often in cerebral hemispheres and along with glioblastoma multiforme, make up 80% adult primary brain tumors

Fibrillary astrocytomas

32

These tumors account for between 5-15% of all gliomas.
Most common in 4th and 5th decades.
Usually found in the white matter of cerebral hemispheres

Oligodendrogliomas

33

most often arise adjacent to the ventricular system.

Ependymomas

34

In the first two decades of life, ependymomas usually are found ...
After age 20, ependymomas are more often found in the ...

near the 4th ventricle; spinal cord

35

About 10% of all primary brain tumors in children are

Ganglioglioma

36

The most common of the poorly differentiated brain tumors is the

medulloblastoma.

37

Medulloblastomas arise almost exclusively in the

cerebellum.

38

The individual tumor cells are small, ovoid or slightly elongated with high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio.

medulloblastoma