Flashcards in CNS Part 4 Deck (38)
2 most common forms of dementia
Alzheimer's and vascular
age of late onset Alzheimer's
age of early onset Alzheimer's
age of family members with familial form of Alzheimer's
before age 50
characteristic abnormalities found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (2)
amyloid plaques and Neurofibrillary tangles
The neurofibrillary tangles are found inside neurons and consist of insoluble twisted fibers made up of ...
in Alzheimer’s disease, the tau protein is abnormal, causing ...
microtubular structures collapse.
In ... , also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID), micro-infarctions and areas of low blood flow damage brain cells with a resultant loss of neuronal function.
Increased ventricular size and diminished volume of grey and white matter is a finding common to
all forms of dementia.
cerebral atrophy with Pick's disease is lobar and typically involves the ... lobes
frontal and temporal
This atrophy is often referred to as being "knife-like" in appearance.
What parts of the brain does Parkinson's mainly affect?
substantia nigra and the locus ceruleus
the characteristic lesions found within the cytoplasm of neurons in Parkinson's
most common demyelinating disease.
New inflammatory lesions can be visualized on MRI scans with gadolinium contrast. Focal gadolinium enhanced lesions correspond to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and acute inflammatory changes with macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration, edema, and demyelization.
These areas usually contain dense infiltrates of foamy macrophages in association with scattered large oligodendrocytes and enlarged astrocytes.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
usually iatrogenic in origin and is due to overly rapid correction of hyponatremia.
Central pontine myelinolysis
Pathologically, myelin is destroyed but neurons and axons are typically spared. This pattern of damage is the opposite to the findings seen with infarction/ stroke.
Central pontine myelinolysis
In children, ~70% of brain tumors are located... the tentorium (in the posterior fossa) whereas in adults, ~70% of tumors are found ... the tentorium.
most prevalent brain tumors found in children
astrocytic: glioblastomas, followed by medulloblastomas, ependymomas and craniopharyngiomas.
In adults, the most prevalent brain tumors are
metastatic tumors followed by astrocytic tumors and meningiomas.
The four major classes of primary brain tumors are
Meningiomas, Gliomas, Neuronal tumors, Poorly differentiated neoplasms
predominantly benign tumors of adults, attached to the dura.
where meningiomas arise
malignant tumors of the glial cells of the brain and account for 30-40% of all primary intracranial tumors.
They occur predominantly in the cerebral hemispheres, but the brain stem and cerebellum are frequent locations in children, and they are also found in the spinal cord.
The most common types of gliomas
Tumor cells resemble normal or reactive astrocytes. They can be stellate, spindle-shaped with fiber like processes, or plump with a large eosinophilic cytoplasmic mass
most malignant form of astrocytoma
It occurs most frequently in middle aged adults. Its most common sites are the frontal and temporal lobes, but it may occur at any age and involve any part of the CNS.
Most often in cerebral hemispheres and along with glioblastoma multiforme, make up 80% adult primary brain tumors
These tumors account for between 5-15% of all gliomas.
Most common in 4th and 5th decades.
Usually found in the white matter of cerebral hemispheres
most often arise adjacent to the ventricular system.
In the first two decades of life, ependymomas usually are found ...
After age 20, ependymomas are more often found in the ...
near the 4th ventricle; spinal cord
About 10% of all primary brain tumors in children are
The most common of the poorly differentiated brain tumors is the
Medulloblastomas arise almost exclusively in the