CNS stimulants Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > CNS stimulants > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS stimulants Deck (32):
1

what are the three classes of CNS stimulants?

analeptics and respiratory stimulants
methylxanthines
sympathomimetic amides - psychomotor stimulants

2

what is the analeptic / respiratory stimulant agent?

doxapram

3

what is the MOA of doxapram?

binds to carotid artery chemoreceptors and medullary respiratory centers to increase tidal volume and RR

4

what is the clinical use of doxapram?

counteract postanesthetic respiratory depression

5

what are the methylxanthine CNS stimulants?

caffeine
theophylline

6

what is the primary clinical use for caffeine?

apnea of prematurity

7

what is the primary clinical use for theophylline?

COPD
asthma

8

what is the MOA of theophylline?

relaxes bronchial smooth muscle

9

what are the sympathomimetic amide CNS stimulants?

amphetamine and analogues

methamphetamine
dexamphetamine
methylphenidate
cocaine
modanifil

10

which sympathomimetic amide CNS stimulant has a MOA that involves inhibition of NE reuptake?

atomoxetine

11

how are CNS stimulants degraded in the periphery?

MAOa and MAOb

12

where are CNS stimulants metabolized? how?

liver

microsomal p450s

13

which drugs should be avoided with CNS stimulant use? why?

MAOIs and SSRIs

increased levels of monoamines

14

how are CNS stimulants excreted?

urine

15

what is the general MOA for analeptic stimulants?

depression of inhibitory neurotransmission

GABA and glycine antagonists - decrease chloride influx and hyperpolarization

16

what is the general MOA for methylxanthines?

inhibition of CNS suppressant

reduce adenosine activity by A1 receptor antagonism

17

what is the general MOA for amphetamines?

enhancement of excitatory transmission

18

what is the general MOA for cocaine?

enhancement of excitatory transmission

inhibition of monoamine uptake via blockade of DA and NE transporters

19

what is the general MOA for atomoxetine?

enhancement of excitatory transmission

selective NE transporter blockade

20

what is the clinical use for methylphenidate?

ADHD

21

what is the clinical use for modanifil?

narcolepsy and sleep disorders

22

which CNS stimulant is used for obesity?

amphetamine

23

which schedule regulation is assigned to amphetamine?

schedule II

24

which brain area involved in the reward pathway is affected by cocaine?

ventral tegmental area

25

what are the CNS side effects of psychomotor stimulants?

euphora
dysphoria
insomnia
irritability
tremor
headache
loss of appetite

26

what are the CV side effects of psychomotor stimulants?

MI, stroke

27

which psychomotor stimulant is associated with steven johnson syndrome? what other side effect is associated with this drug?

modafinil

skin rashes

28

which agents are used to treat ADHD?

methylphenidate - ritalin
amphetamine salts - adderall, adderall XR
dextroamphetamine - dexedrine, dextrostat

29

what are the non-stimulant agents used to treat ADHD?

atomoxetine
clonidine
modafinil
antidepressants - TCAs, MAOIs, bupropion

30

which non-stimulant agent used to treat ADHD is FDA approved?

atomoxetine

31

what is the MOA of atomoxetine?

selective NE reuptake blocker

32

what are the side effects in ADHD treatment?

decreased appetite and weight loss
insomnia

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