Flashcards in Coastal flooding case study: Southern Asia Tsunmai Deck (11):
-Countries that it devastated
When did it occur?
26th December 2004
What did it measure on the richter scale?
Where did the Tsunami travel across and at what speed?
-Travelled across the Bay of Bengal at speeds of up to 800 kilometres per hour
-The waves struck south-Eastern India just two hours after the earthquake
How much inland did the tsunami reach at Trincomalee?
2Km inland in the north-east of Sri Lanka
How high were the waves on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra
What were the economic impacts?
-Costs of damaged varied between $8 billion and $15billion
-Fishing is a large part of the economy for many of the areas hit by the tsunami. Boats, nets and other equipment were destroyed o lost, severely affecting the livelihood of fishermen
-Salinisation of the land has severely reduced soil fertility. Crop production will be lower for several years to come
-Tourism is important for the economy of many countries affected. 25% of hotels in southern Thailand were closed for foreign visitors to the Island of Phuket dropped 80% in 2005 as the area was perceived as being less safe
What were the environmental impacts?
-8 million litres of oil ere released into the environment after two oil plants in Indonesia were destroyed.
-The pollution caused widespread pollution at sea and contamination of the soil, posing health risks to humans in the area
-Mangrove forests as far as the East African Coast were damaged by the force of the ways, or covered in layers of silt
-The high salt content of the floodwater destroyed the natural balance of ecosystems e.g. the Karagan Lagoon in Southern Sri Lanka
What were the social impacts?
-Deadliest earthquake ever recorded with an estimated 230,000 people killed or missing
1.7 million were made homeless
-Fresh drinking water were polluted, either by sewage or by saltwarter
-400,000 lost thier jobs in Sri Lanka alone
How did human activity lead to increased impacts in flooding? (mangrove)
-Mangrove forests protect the Sri Lanka by absorbing wave energy.
-Tourist development and the creation of intensive prawn fisheries has led to the destruction of mangrove forests in other areas around the Indian Ocean.
-it's estimated that Thailand has lost up to half of its mangrove forests since 1975.
-The lack of protection meant that waves could reach further inland and the flooding was much worse than in areas protected by mangroves