Coastal flooding case study: Southern Asia Tsunmai Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Coastal flooding case study: Southern Asia Tsunmai Deck (11):

-Countries that it devastated

-Sri Lanka


When did it occur?

26th December 2004


What did it measure on the richter scale?



Where did the Tsunami travel across and at what speed?

-Travelled across the Bay of Bengal at speeds of up to 800 kilometres per hour

-The waves struck south-Eastern India just two hours after the earthquake


How much inland did the tsunami reach at Trincomalee?

2Km inland in the north-east of Sri Lanka


How high were the waves on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra

30m high


What were the economic impacts?

-Costs of damaged varied between $8 billion and $15billion

-Fishing is a large part of the economy for many of the areas hit by the tsunami. Boats, nets and other equipment were destroyed o lost, severely affecting the livelihood of fishermen

-Salinisation of the land has severely reduced soil fertility. Crop production will be lower for several years to come

-Tourism is important for the economy of many countries affected. 25% of hotels in southern Thailand were closed for foreign visitors to the Island of Phuket dropped 80% in 2005 as the area was perceived as being less safe


What were the environmental impacts?

-8 million litres of oil ere released into the environment after two oil plants in Indonesia were destroyed.

-The pollution caused widespread pollution at sea and contamination of the soil, posing health risks to humans in the area

-Mangrove forests as far as the East African Coast were damaged by the force of the ways, or covered in layers of silt

-The high salt content of the floodwater destroyed the natural balance of ecosystems e.g. the Karagan Lagoon in Southern Sri Lanka


What were the social impacts?

-Deadliest earthquake ever recorded with an estimated 230,000 people killed or missing

1.7 million were made homeless

-Fresh drinking water were polluted, either by sewage or by saltwarter

-400,000 lost thier jobs in Sri Lanka alone


How did human activity lead to increased impacts in flooding? (mangrove)

-Mangrove forests protect the Sri Lanka by absorbing wave energy.

-Tourist development and the creation of intensive prawn fisheries has led to the destruction of mangrove forests in other areas around the Indian Ocean.

-it's estimated that Thailand has lost up to half of its mangrove forests since 1975.

-The lack of protection meant that waves could reach further inland and the flooding was much worse than in areas protected by mangroves


How did human activity lead to increased impacts in flooding? (coral reefs)

-Healthy coral reefs surrounding the Maldives acted as a breakwater (reducing the power of the tsunami waves) and prevented the complete destruction of the low-lying Islands

-Illegal coral mining and the use of dynamite in the explosive 'blast fishing' has destroyed many offshore coral reefs in the Indian Ocean. This reduced the level of natural protection from the waves.