Flashcards in Coastal Landscapes Deck (37):
What are the three types of weathering?
Biological, Chemical and Mechanical
What is biological weathering?
Tree roots widen in cracks in rocks causing the rock to split
What is chemical weathering?
Rocks reacting with slightly acidic water
What is mechanical weathering?
Freeze Thaw Action
What is mass movement?
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity
Three types of mass movement?
Material involved, amount of water in the material, sliding and slumping
What is long-shore drift?
Process by which beach sediment can be transported along the coast by waves
What are the four types of Transportation?
Traction, Saltation, Suspension and Solution
What is traction?
Large boulders are rolled along the sedbed by waves
What is saltation?
Smaller stones are bounced along the seabed
What is Suspension?
sand and small particles are carried along in the flow
What is solution?
Some minerals are dissolved in seawater and carried in the flow
What is deposition?
The load carried by waves is deposited by constructive waves.
What factors influence deposition?
Sheltered spots, calm conditions, gentle gradient
What are concordant coasts?
Made up of the same rock type
What are discordant coasts?
The rock type alternates, forming headlands and bays
What are joints and faults?
Joints are smaller cracks; faults are larger, both make rock more prone to erosion, rocks with more joints and faults are eroded more quickly
What is a constructive wave?
Material is deposited, building up the coast, low energy and occur in calm conditions
What is a destructive wave?
swash is weak and backwash strong. Material is dragged into the sea, eroding the coast, high energy and occurs in stormy conditions
What is freeze Thaw action?
Water falls into cracks in rocks and freezes, causing it to expand overtime the repeated thawing and freezing causes the rocks to break apart
What is the prevailing Wind?
Comes from the south-west, Bringing warm moist air from the Atlantic and frequent rainfall, contributing to weathering and mass movement.
What is the definition of Coastal erosion?
Breaking down and removal of material along the coast
What is the definition of Coastal retreat?
When coastal erosion causes the coastline to move further inland
How do headlands and bays develop?
Develops on coastlines with a mix of hard and soft rock, often occur where cliffs have fault lines or joints
How is a cave formed?
When the waves erode a weakness in the rock such as a joint or a fault
How is an arch formed?
When two caves erode back from either side of a headland and meet in the middle
How is stack formed?
When an arch collapses
What and how is a wave-cut platform formed?
Erosion of cliffs can create wave-cut platforms - areas of flat rock at the base of the cliff
Give three types of human activity that affect coastal landscapes?
Urbanization, Agriculture and Industry
How does Urbanization affect the coastal landscape?
- Weight of building makes cliffs more vulnerable
- changes to drainage increase soil saturation
- raises interest in protecting
How does Agriculture affect the coastal landscape?
- Increases soil erosion
- increases sedimentation
- Creates wildlife habitats
How does industry affect the coastal landscape?
- Increases air, noise and visual pollution
- Can destroy habitats for birds, animals and sea life
- brings wealth and jobs to an area
Effects of flooding
- loss of people's homes
- wildlife habitats destroyed
- cliffs become dangerous for walkers
- increased in deposition further along the coast
What is hard engineering?
Techniques that are man-made and can spoil the visual landscape
What is soft engineering?
Techniques that formed by nature
Give three examples of Hard engineering
1. Sea Wall
3. Rip Rap Defense