Flashcards in Coasts Deck (52):
The 'sandpapering' effect of pebbles grinding over a rocky platform, often causing it to become smooth.
A rocky opening through a headland.
Rock fragments carried by the sea knock against one another, causing them to become smaller and smoother.
Backward movement of water down the beach once the wave has broken.
A ridge of sand or shingle across the entrance to a bay of river mouth.
A broad coastal inlet often with a beach.
A deposit of sand or shingle at the coast.
Bedding Plane Definition
Horizontal line of weakness in sedimentary rocks, showing how the rock was laid down in layers,
Weathering of limestone and chalk by acidic rainwater.
Area that has been hollowed out by waves at the bottom of a cliff.
Chemical Weathering Definition
Weathering that involves a chemical change taking place.
Steep rock outcrop along a coast.
Coastal Management Definition
Attempts by people to alter or maintain the natural features of the coastline.
Constructive Wave Definition
Waves that surge up the beach with a powerful swash.
The effect of rocks being flung at the cliff by powerful waves.
The top of a wave.
Destructive Wave Definition
A wave that is formed by a local storm that crashes down onto the beach and has a powerful backwash.
The distance of water over which the wind has blown, which affects the size and strength of the waves.
Freeze-thaw Weathering Definition
Weathering involving repeated cycles of freezing and thawing.
Made of wood or stone built out at right angles to the coast to trap sediment being transported by long-shore drift.
Hard Engineering Definition
Building artificial structures such as sea walls aimed at controlling natural processes.
A promontory of land jutting out into the sea.
Hydraulic Power Definition
Involves the sheer power of the waves as they smash onto a cliff. Trapped air is blasted into holes and cracks in the rock, eventually causing the rock to break apart.
Rocks which do not absorb water.
Vertical line of weakness in rocks.
Blocks of rock slide downhill.
Long-shore Drift Definition
The current that transport material along coast in a zig-zag.
Managed Retreat Definition
Allowing controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas or cliff collapse in areas where the value of land is low.
Mass Movement Definition
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity.
Mechanical (Physical) Weathering Definition
Weathering that doesn't involve chemical change.
Saturated soil and weak rock flows down slope.
Rocks which can absorb water.
Pioneer Plant Definition
The first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment.
Prevailing Wind Definition
The most frequent wind direction.
Rip Rap Definition
Large boulders place at the base of cliffs to adsorb waves' energy and protect the cliff form erosion.
The collapse of a cliff face or the fall of individual rocks from a cliff.
A hopping movement of pebbles along the seabed.
Salt Marsh Definition
Low-lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide.
Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) Definition
An integrated coastal management plan for a stretch of coastline in England and Wales.
When a cliff collapse. Rotational slumping occurs when saturated soil and weak rock slumps along a curved surface.
Soft Engineering Definition
A sustainable approach to managing the coast without using artificial resources.
The dissolving pf rocks by seawater. Limestone and chalk are particularly vulnerable. Also the transportation of dissolved chemicals.
Long ridge of sand and shingle, attached to the land at one end but in the open sea at the other end e.g. Spurn Point.
Piece of rock surrounded by sea, now standing away from the coast.
Lighter particles carried (suspended) within water.
Forward movement of water as the wave breaks.
Heavy particles rolled along the seabed.
A sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment over time.
Wave-cut Notch Definition
A small indentation (or notch) cut into a cliff roughly at the level of high tide caused by concentrated marine erosion at this level.
Wave-cut Platform Definition
Area of gently sloping or flat rocks at the base of cliffs that are exposed at low tide.
Wave Refraction Definition
The bending of a wave as it approaches the shore, caused by shallowing water.