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Flashcards in Coasts Deck (52):
1

Abrasion Definition

The 'sandpapering' effect of pebbles grinding over a rocky platform, often causing it to become smooth.

2

Arch Definition

A rocky opening through a headland.

3

Attrition Definition

Rock fragments carried by the sea knock against one another, causing them to become smaller and smoother.

4

Backwash Definition

Backward movement of water down the beach once the wave has broken.

5

Bar Definition

A ridge of sand or shingle across the entrance to a bay of river mouth.

6

Bay Definition

A broad coastal inlet often with a beach.

7

Beach Definition

A deposit of sand or shingle at the coast.

8

Bedding Plane Definition

Horizontal line of weakness in sedimentary rocks, showing how the rock was laid down in layers,

9

Carbonation Definition

Weathering of limestone and chalk by acidic rainwater.

10

Cave Definition

Area that has been hollowed out by waves at the bottom of a cliff.

11

Chemical Weathering Definition

Weathering that involves a chemical change taking place.

12

Cliff Definition

Steep rock outcrop along a coast.

13

Coastal Management Definition

Attempts by people to alter or maintain the natural features of the coastline.

14

Constructive Wave Definition

Waves that surge up the beach with a powerful swash.

15

Corrasion Definition

The effect of rocks being flung at the cliff by powerful waves.

16

Crest Definition

The top of a wave.

17

Destructive Wave Definition

A wave that is formed by a local storm that crashes down onto the beach and has a powerful backwash.

18

Fetch Definition

The distance of water over which the wind has blown, which affects the size and strength of the waves.

19

Freeze-thaw Weathering Definition

Weathering involving repeated cycles of freezing and thawing.

20

Groyne Definition

Made of wood or stone built out at right angles to the coast to trap sediment being transported by long-shore drift.

21

Hard Engineering Definition

Building artificial structures such as sea walls aimed at controlling natural processes.

22

Headland Definition

A promontory of land jutting out into the sea.

23

Hydraulic Power Definition

Involves the sheer power of the waves as they smash onto a cliff. Trapped air is blasted into holes and cracks in the rock, eventually causing the rock to break apart.

24

Impermeable Definition

Rocks which do not absorb water.

25

Joint Definition

Vertical line of weakness in rocks.

26

Landslide Definition

Blocks of rock slide downhill.

27

Long-shore Drift Definition

The current that transport material along coast in a zig-zag.

28

Managed Retreat Definition

Allowing controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas or cliff collapse in areas where the value of land is low.

29

Mass Movement Definition

The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity.

30

Mechanical (Physical) Weathering Definition

Weathering that doesn't involve chemical change.

31

Mud-flow Definition

Saturated soil and weak rock flows down slope.

32

Permeable Definition

Rocks which can absorb water.

33

Pioneer Plant Definition

The first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment.

34

Prevailing Wind Definition

The most frequent wind direction.

35

Rip Rap Definition

Large boulders place at the base of cliffs to adsorb waves' energy and protect the cliff form erosion.

36

Rockfall Definition

The collapse of a cliff face or the fall of individual rocks from a cliff.

37

Saltation Definition

A hopping movement of pebbles along the seabed.

38

Salt Marsh Definition

Low-lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide.

39

Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) Definition

An integrated coastal management plan for a stretch of coastline in England and Wales.

40

Slumping Definition

When a cliff collapse. Rotational slumping occurs when saturated soil and weak rock slumps along a curved surface.

41

Soft Engineering Definition

A sustainable approach to managing the coast without using artificial resources.

42

Solution Definition

The dissolving pf rocks by seawater. Limestone and chalk are particularly vulnerable. Also the transportation of dissolved chemicals.

43

Spit Definition

Long ridge of sand and shingle, attached to the land at one end but in the open sea at the other end e.g. Spurn Point.

44

Stack Definition

Piece of rock surrounded by sea, now standing away from the coast.

45

Suspension Definition

Lighter particles carried (suspended) within water.

46

Swash Definition

Forward movement of water as the wave breaks.

47

Traction Definition

Heavy particles rolled along the seabed.

48

Vegetation Definition

A sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment over time.

49

Wave-cut Notch Definition

A small indentation (or notch) cut into a cliff roughly at the level of high tide caused by concentrated marine erosion at this level.

50

Wave-cut Platform Definition

Area of gently sloping or flat rocks at the base of cliffs that are exposed at low tide.

51

Wave Refraction Definition

The bending of a wave as it approaches the shore, caused by shallowing water.

52

Weathering Definition

Breakdown of rocks by natural agents such as rain, frost, salt and the sun.