Cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups Flashcards Preview

Biology OCR (4, enzymes) > Cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups Deck (14):
1

Coenzymes and Cofactors

2

What is a cofactor?

inorganic chemicals that assist enzymes during the catalysis of reactions

3

What are coenzymes?

Organic chemicals that assist enzymes during the catalysis of reactions

4

What are the two different ways that cofactors and coenzymes can assist enzymes during the catalyst if reactions?

They can form part of the active site of the enzyme or they may transfer atoms or groups from one reaction to the other

5

How are cofactors obtained by the body?

Via the diet as minerals

6

What are the mineral ions obtained by the diet that are often used as cofactors?

iron, calcium, chloride and zinc

7

How are coenzymes obtained by the body?

via the diet as vitamins

8

What are prosthetic groups?

A prosthetic group is a tightly bound unit required for the biological function of some proteins. The prosthetic group may be organic or inorganic

9

What is he name given to enzymes that are produced in an inactive form?

inactive precursor enzymes

10

Why may some enzymes be produced inactive?

Because the enzyme might damage the organs or tissues where it is produced or because the enzyme may be required to function in a different place from where it was produced

11

How are precursor enzymes activated?

They usually require a change in the enzymes tertiary structure either via a cofactor, another enzyme, pH or temperature change. Which then changes the shape of the active site.

12

What is the name of the precursor protein before the cofactor is added?

An apoenzyme

13

What is the name of the precursor protein after the cofactor is added?

Holoenzyme

14

What is the name given to precursor enzyme that change shape due to changes in pH or temperature?

zymogens or proenzymes