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Flashcards in COG - Final Deck (111)
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1

two main types of cells in the nervous system

glial cells
neurons

2

At the cellular level, information is transmitted in the nervous system by the conversion of what kind of energy?

electrical energy into chemical energy and then back into electrical

3

chemical cellular communication happens at the?

synaptic cleft

4

what does the neurotransmitter do?

chemical messengers that transmit a message from a nerve cell across the synapse to a target cell

5

What are the divisions of the nervous system?

Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

6

What two structures make up the central nervous system?

Brain
spinal cord

7

Divisions of the peripheral nervous system

somatic nervous system (SNS)
autonomic nervous system (ANS)

8

What are the outer coverings of the brain?

Dura mater, arachnoid membrane, pia mater

9

The main components/structures in the brain include what?

Cerebrum (lobes)
cerebellum
subcortical structures
brainstem

10

Grey matter is grey because it consists of

densely packed cell bodies

11

Name the 5 lobes of the brain

frontal
temporal
parietal
occipital
insula

12

Although there may be involvement across multiple lobes of the brain for cognition, the main lobe is believed to be the

frontal lobe

13

Which cortex of the frontal lobe is typically associated with executive function?

Prefrontal cortex

14

If you were to experience agnosia, or inability to recognize objects, this would likely be due to damage to the __ lobe of the brain.

Parietal

15

Visual processing is believed to be involved with the __ lobe of the brain.

Occipital

16

Balance is typically associated with this part of the brain

Cerebellum

17

The brain's subcortical structures include?

thalamus
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
hippocampus
basal ganglia
amygdala

18

The subcortical structure believed to form and store memories associated with emotional events is the

amygdala

19

The three parts of the brainstem from superior to inferior are the

midbrain
pons
medulla

20

The portion of the midbrain that produces the neurotransmitter dopamine is the

substantia nigra

21

T/F: Efferent nerves travel from the CNS to the body

True

22

T/F: Afferent nerves travel from the CNS to the body

False

23

Which type of tracts in the CNS provide intrahemispheric connection?

Association

24

The two arterial systems in the brain are __ arteries, which provide posterior blood circulation, and the __ arteries, which provide anterior circulation

Vertebral; carotid

25

T/F: SLPs do not need to be familiar with neurology to be effective

False

26

Cognition is an umbrella term for all higher mental processes including:

(LAME)

language
attention
memory
executive function

27

According to Solhberg & Mateer (1987, 2001, 2010), the two broad component types of attention are

executive control of attention
sustained

28

The four types of attention under executive control are

selective
alternating
suppression
working memory

29

Listening to a spoken passage in the presence of background noise requires intact attention of what kind?

Selective

30

The areas of the brain that are devoted to attention are

frontal lobe
temporal lobe
parietal lobe