Flashcards in Cognitive area - Moray and Loftus and Palmer Deck (22):
Whats the background to Moray's study
More wanted to test Colin cherry's theory of the cocktail party effect.
What was the aim of Moray's study
To test cherry's findings of the cocktail party effect
What is the cocktail party effect referred to in Moray's study
If your deep in conversation you will still be able to respond when someone mentions your name
Outline the sample of the 3 experiments in Moray's study.
-Did not provide sample size for experiment 1
-12 participants in experiment 2
-2 groups of 14 participants in experiment 3 (28)
-Made up of uni students and research workers
What was the procedure for experiment 1 (Moray)?
-Short list of words spoken 35 times as rejected message
-At the end of shadowing, participant asked to recall anything from the rejected message
-30 seconds later participants given recognition test of 21 words - 7 from shadowed passage, 7 from rejected and 7 random
What were the findings from experiment 1(Moray)?
-7 words taken from shadowed passage - average of 4.9/7
-7 words taken from rejected message - average of 1.9/7
-7 words similar but random - average 2.6/7
What are the conclusions of experiment 1(Moray)?
When someone directs their attention to one thing, almost none of the 'rejected' message can be recalled.
What is a dichotic listening task(Moray)?
When two different auditory stimuli are presented into each ear through headphones.
What were the findings from experiment 2(Moray)?
-When name was mentioned, participants heard instructions 20/39 times
-When name was not mentioned, participants heard instructions 4/36 times
What are the conclusions of experiment 2(Moray)?
That participants are more likely to hear something if something of relevance is said such as a name - breaks through 'the block'
What was the procedure for experiment 2(Moray)?
-2 passages of light fiction in each ear - instructions at start to listen to right ear and make no mistakes
-Participants name mentioned 3 times out of 10 passages - 36 affective cues (12 participants x 3)
-Counted number of times participants heard the instructions
What was the procedure for experiment 3(Moray)?
-Numbers put into the message towards the end -sometimes numbers were in both messages, sometimes in shadowed, sometimes in rejected
-IV was the group - 1 group told at start they would be asked about shadowed message, 1 group told to remember as many numbers heard as possible
What were the findings from experiment 3(Moray)?
-Showed no significant difference between groups
-Concluded that this was because numbers are not important enough to break through the 'block', unlike a name
How many participants in experiment one and two (Loftus and Palmer)?
Experiment one = 45
Experiment two = 150
Where did the videos come from! (Loftus and Palmer)
Seattle police dept
Evergreen road safety council
What was the general aim (Loftus and Palmer) ?
To test whether the phrasing of questions about a car accident could alter participants memory of an event
What was the aim of experiment one? (Loftus and Palmer)
To see whether using different verbs to describe a collision between two cars would effect estimates of the speed at which they are travelling when the crash took place
What was the experimental design (Loftus and Palmer) ? (1&2)
Independent measures design
What was the process for Loftus and Palmers experiment 1 ?
1. Shown 7 clips from Seattle road accident
2.Asked how fast they where going as well as other questions
3.Different words where used to describe the crash
Identify all 5 conditions in Loftus and palmer experiment 1
What was the procedure for experiment 2 Loftus and Palmer
.Participants watched 1 min crash vid
.2 groups asked critical question
.one group used word smashed other hit
.third group control group
.week later asked if they saw glass