Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology Chapter IX Language II (350) Deck (25):
The mystery of speech perception?
We are able to perceive 50 phonemes per second, but only 1 phone per second of nonspeech sounds?
Coarticulation occurs when phonemes or other units ...
... are produced in a way that overlaps them in time.
Coarticulation is a result of the ...
... anticipation of the next sign.
Theories that view speech perception as ordinary emphasize either ...
... template-matching or feature-detection processes.
A name, year and example sentence for the phonemic-restoration effect:
"It was found that the *eel was on the ________." (axle, shoe, table or orange)
Theories that see speech perception as ordinary perception have what in common?
They all require decision-making processes above and beyond feature detection or template matching.
What phenomenon motivates the view of speech perception as special?
categorical perception (although the speech sounds we hear comprise a continuum ov variation in sound waves, we experience speech sounds categorically)
Liberman (1957) on categorical perception:
Continuum between ba - da - ga is hear as sudden switches.
The Motor Theory of Speech Perception (Lieberman 1967):
According to this theory, we use the movements of the speaker's vocal tract for perception.
In conversation we use lip reading to enhance our speech perception. See e.g. the ...
... McGurk effect.
Denotation is ...
... the strict dictionary meaning of a word.
Connotation is ...
... a word's emotional overtones and other non-explicit meanings.
Grammar is the ...
... study of language in terms of noticing regular patterns.
Prescriptive grammar prescribes ...
... the "correct" ways in which to structure language.
Descriptive grammar attempts ...
... to describe the structures used in language.
"Colorless green ideas sleep furiously." by?
We spontaneously tend to use syntactical structures and read faster sentences that match the structure of sentences we have just heard.
Even speech errors are produced in accordance with correct grammar! Example:
"I put the oven in the cake" instead of "I put the cake in the oven"
What is parsing?
The process of deviding sentences into functional components.
What's the phrase-structure grammar?
The structure of phrases as they are used.
The rules governing the sequences of words are termed ...
... phrase structure rules.
What do linguists often use to observe the relationships between phrases of a sentence?
How many possible ways to structure a tree diagram of the phrase-structure of the following sentence can you think of: "The girl looked at the boy with the telescope."?
Noam Chomsky, 1957: He revolutionist the study of syntax by proposing ...
... transformational grammar.