Flashcards in Cognitive (sensory, perceptual, motor) - children Deck (40):
When do children have memory for mother's voice?
In the uterus
When do children have memory for mother's face?
During the first day of life, 2-3 month olds have a preference for attractive faces
What are infants better than older children and adults at?
Perception of phonetic contrasts
When do children understand object's properties
When are the simple reflexes present (functional and vestigial)
When can children hold their head up 90 degrees?
When can children sit unsupported?
When can children stand alone?
When can children walk a few steps?
When do primary circular reactions occur?
When do secondary circular reactions occur?
When do tertiary circular reactions occur?
What are motor skills?
Functions involving the precise movement of muscles to achieve a particular intent
What is sensation?
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
What is perception?
Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory
What is intermodal perception?
We make sense of simultaneous input from more than one modality (sensory system)
What are amodal sensory properties?
Information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems
What is shape and size constancy in the understanding of key properties of objects?
Objects remain the same although they change their appearance depending on the distance from the observer
What is solidity in the understanding of key properties of objects?
Two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time
What is continuity in the understanding of key properties of objects?
Objects exist continuously in time and space even if not seen
What is connected surface in the understanding of key properties of objects?
If two surfaces are connected, they belong to the same object
What is support in the understanding of key properties of objects?
Unsupported objects fall
What is cross-modal congruence in the understanding of key properties of objects?
Stimulation coming from the same object is consistent across modalities
What are cephalocaudal trends?
Head to toe
What are proximodistal trends?
Near to far
How is perception and action rewarded?
Children perceive and act for their own sake, not only for external rewards.
There is an interest in novel stimuli.
There is enjoyment in repletion of familiar patterns - circular reactions.
Children are active, not reactive.
What is the function of perception?
Achieving control over environment, and forming expectations.
Human children are attuned to perceive those aspects of the environment that are essential for survival.
What is the concept of affordances?
Perception of things can show tacit understanding of what they can offer, or the dangers they can bring.
What is canalization?
Dominant role of biological maturation for motor and perceptual development
What is progressive integration?
Individual simple skills get coordinated into complex and flexible systems
What is localisation?
Infants demonstrate awareness of sounds in their environment by turning toward and visually searching for the source of a sound
Auditory-visual association marks the beginning of an infants conceptual grasp of cause and effect
When do children attempt to turn head?
When does localisation to the side only occur?
When does localisation to side or below occur?
When does localisation to the side, below or above occur?
When does direct localisation to any angle occur?
What is a foundation of communication according to Bruner (1977)?
Joint visual attention
What does joint attention achieve?
Links utterances and concepts/objects and is often developed through routines
What do routines consist of?
Routines are often sound-gesture games - ritualised between adult and infant such as 'peekaboo'