Cognitive (sensory, perceptual, motor) - children Flashcards Preview

Lifespan Communicative and Cognitive Development > Cognitive (sensory, perceptual, motor) - children > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive (sensory, perceptual, motor) - children Deck (40):
1

When do children have memory for mother's voice?

In the uterus

2

When do children have memory for mother's face?

During the first day of life, 2-3 month olds have a preference for attractive faces

3

What are infants better than older children and adults at?

Perception of phonetic contrasts

4

When do children understand object's properties

3 months

5

When are the simple reflexes present (functional and vestigial)

At birth

6

When can children hold their head up 90 degrees?

4 months

7

When can children sit unsupported?

7 months

8

When can children stand alone?

13 months

9

When can children walk a few steps?

15 months

10

When do primary circular reactions occur?

1-4 months

11

When do secondary circular reactions occur?

4-12 months

12

When do tertiary circular reactions occur?

12-24 months

13

What are motor skills?

Functions involving the precise movement of muscles to achieve a particular intent

14

What is sensation?

The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

15

What is perception?

Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory

16

What is intermodal perception?

We make sense of simultaneous input from more than one modality (sensory system)

17

What are amodal sensory properties?

Information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems

18

What is shape and size constancy in the understanding of key properties of objects?

Objects remain the same although they change their appearance depending on the distance from the observer

19

What is solidity in the understanding of key properties of objects?

Two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time

20

What is continuity in the understanding of key properties of objects?

Objects exist continuously in time and space even if not seen

21

What is connected surface in the understanding of key properties of objects?

If two surfaces are connected, they belong to the same object

22

What is support in the understanding of key properties of objects?

Unsupported objects fall

23

What is cross-modal congruence in the understanding of key properties of objects?

Stimulation coming from the same object is consistent across modalities

24

What are cephalocaudal trends?

Head to toe

25

What are proximodistal trends?

Near to far

26

How is perception and action rewarded?

Children perceive and act for their own sake, not only for external rewards.
There is an interest in novel stimuli.
There is enjoyment in repletion of familiar patterns - circular reactions.
Children are active, not reactive.

27

What is the function of perception?

Achieving control over environment, and forming expectations.
Human children are attuned to perceive those aspects of the environment that are essential for survival.

28

What is the concept of affordances?

Perception of things can show tacit understanding of what they can offer, or the dangers they can bring.

29

What is canalization?

Dominant role of biological maturation for motor and perceptual development

30

What is progressive integration?

Individual simple skills get coordinated into complex and flexible systems

31

What is localisation?

Infants demonstrate awareness of sounds in their environment by turning toward and visually searching for the source of a sound
Auditory-visual association marks the beginning of an infants conceptual grasp of cause and effect

32

When do children attempt to turn head?

3-4 months

33

When does localisation to the side only occur?

4-7 months

34

When does localisation to side or below occur?

7-13 months

35

When does localisation to the side, below or above occur?

13-21 months

36

When does direct localisation to any angle occur?

21-24 months

37

What is a foundation of communication according to Bruner (1977)?

Joint visual attention

38

What does joint attention achieve?

Links utterances and concepts/objects and is often developed through routines

39

What do routines consist of?

Routines are often sound-gesture games - ritualised between adult and infant such as 'peekaboo'

40

What are the features of joint attention?

Has a definite structure with a clear beginning, middle and end - clearly specified positions for vocalisations
Allows for anticipation of events and increases potential for successful child-adult interaction