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Flashcards in Cold wx/Contaminated ops Deck (41)
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1

A contaminated runway is defined as:

1. More than 25% covered
2. 3mm or greater of standing water, slush or wet snow
3. 10mm or greater of dry snow
4. compacted snow

Below these limits use wet data
above -5 degrees C treat snow as slush

Perf 4.4

2

T/O thrust limitation on contaminated rwys

reduced thrust NOT allowed

FCOM SP16

3

Maximum allowable depths of contaminants:

13 mm (1/2 inch) of slush/wet snow/standing water

100 mm (4 inches) of dry snow

FCOM SP16

4

Icing conditions exist when:

OAT/TAT less than or equal to 10 degrees C

Visible moisture/visibility less than equal to 1500m

Ice/slush/snow/standing water

FCOM SP16

5

In contaminated conditions, there must be no deficiencies allowed of any element of the braking system, including:

speed brakes
reversers
wheel brakes
anti-skid

Perf 4.4

6

Min cleared rwy width:

45 m symmetrically around C/Line

Perf 4.4

7

max tailwind in contaminated conditions

5 kts

Perf 4.4

8

ONLY allowable contamination on a/c:

3mm of frost on the underside of wing in the general area of the fuel tanks. NO ridges allowed

Thin hoar frost on the fuselage provoded static vents are clear

OM A 8.8.4a

9

At LHR, spot deicing or technical de-icing is done by:

Engineering (131.905)

OM A 8.8.4c

10

At LHR, Airframe icing is done by:

De-icing control at ETD-20 mins (131.785)

11

Max Reverse thrust MUST be used when:

The rwy is covered by standing water, snow, slush or ice

The target threshold speed has been increased for a deficiency

There is any unserviceability of speed brakes, wheel brakes or anti skid

12

What time must be entered into the AML on a two step deicing process

Start time of second stage

13

Engine Start Procedure

G-STBA- G-STBL
If Cold Soaked for more than ....

4 hours at -40˚C do not start or motor engine until maintenance input completed.

14

Engine start in cold conditions ....

 Oil Pressure slow to rise
 Initial oil pressure higher than normal
 Additional warm up time may be needed
 Displays may require additional warm up time

15

Engine Warm Up Times - GE:

GE:
Recommend: 3 mins
Required: Engine Oil Temp above bottom of scale

16

Engine Warm Up Times- RR:

RR:
Recommend: if more than 1.5 hrs shutdown = 5 mins or 3 mins if less than 1.5 hors

17

Engine Anti-Ice requirements after start:

 On immediately after engine start in icing conditions

 Not require below -40˚OAT

 Do not use when OAT> 10˚

FCOM SP.16

18

Before Taxi Procedure - in contaminated conditions - considerations:

 Consider delaying flight control check if there is contamination on wing

 Delay Flap Extension

 Think about Engine Run-up Requirements

FCOM SP.16

19

Taxi Out Engine Run-up Requirements:

Anti-Ice required and OAT is 3˚ or below:

Small GE: Min 50% N1 for ≈ 1sec every 15 minutes

Large GE and RR: Min 50% N1 ≈ 1sec every 60 minutes

(FCOM SP.16)

20

Before Takeoff Procedure in contaminated conditions, approaching the T/O Rwy PF calls:

call "SELECT FLAPS"

21

Before Takeoff Procedure

G-YMMA-G-YMMU - oil temperature must be greater than or equal to:

50 degrees C

22

Take off procedure - engine run ups:

OAT is 3˚ and below & EAI required = Static Run-up

o RR- Min 50% N1; confirm stable

o GE- Min 50% N1; confirm stable and engine vibration below 4 units

23

RR engines - Taxi with Freezing Fog Restrictions:

With freezing fog (visibility

24

Fan Ice Removal procedure

Avoid prolonged flight in moderate to severe icing.

See FCOM SP 16.10 for further details - involves either rapidly reducing or increasing power on the engines

25

Fuel Freezing (FCTM 4.11)

Min in flight = XXX°C above Fuel freeze point
(FUEL TEMP LOW advisory message).

3 °C

26

Fuel temp will trend towards TAT at approx. XXX° per hour.

3 °C

27

3 Options to raise fuel temp...

Increasing Mach by 0.01 raises TAT by approximately XX degrees C, but has no immediate effect on the actual fuel temp in tank.

o Climb/Descend to warmer air
o Deviate to warmer air
o Increase Mach number

Increasing Mach by 0.01 raises TAT by approx. 0.5° - 0.7°C, but has no immediate effect on the actual fuel temperature in the tank.

28

Fuel Freezing (FCTM 4.11)

For blends of fuel the most conservative freezing point of the mix until XXX consecutive refuelling’s with a lower freeze point have been completed

3 consecutive refuels

29

Signs of Ice Crystal Icing...
(QRH)

 Visible moisture
 Amber or red returns below aircraft
 Liquid water on windscreen at temperatures too cold for rain
 A/T unable to maintain speed or disconnects
 TAT at or near 0˚
 Abnormal engine vibration indications
 Turbulence
 St. Elmo’s Fire
 Sulphur/ozone smell
 Humidity increase

30

Cold Temperature Altimeter Correction

In conditions where the surface temperature at an airport is less than XXX pilots should add the values derived from cold weather calculator App to the published procedure altitudes at the Final Approach Fix and the MDA/DA to ensure adequate obstacle clearance.

(OM A 8.13.4.a)

ISA - 25˚C

OM A 8.13.4.a