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Flashcards in Colombo: Acid/Base Regulation Deck (34):
1

What is the physiological pH of the body?

7.4

2

What are the three definitions of acids/bases?

1. Arrhenius: Acids increase H+ concentration and bases increase OH- concentration2. Bronsted-Lowry: Acids donate protons, bases accept protons (will not necessarily increase OH-)3. Lewis: Acids accept electrons, bases donate electrons

3

What are some biological effects of altered H+ concentration?

1. protein folding and confirmation2. Ion currents3. Ligand-receptor interactions4. muscle contraction5. Cell proliferation6. Most biochemistry operates best at physiological pH

4

How do concentration levels and regulation compare between Na+ and H+ in the ECF around a cell?

There is about 3.5 million times Na as there is H, but H has about one millionth of the variation as Na. Hydrogen ions are much more tightly regulated than Na.

5

How does aerobic metabolism create H+ ions?

It creates CO2, which formed bicarbonate and dissociates into HCO3- and H+

6

What is the catalyst to speeding up the dissociation of bicarbonate into HCO3- and H+

carbonic anhydrase

7

Which acid/s is/are volatile?

carbonic acid

8

Which acid/s is/are nonvolatile?

All other acids other than carbonic acid

9

As levels of CO2 decrease, the pH of the body will...?

increase

10

What does blood pH tell you?

The ratio between the conjugate base and acid, therefore telling you the amount of H+

11

Too much H+ in the blood is called?

acidemia

12

What is the difference between acidemia and acidosis?

Acidosis is the blanket term for acidemia.

13

Too little H+ in the blood is called?

Alkalemia

14

What is the difference between alkalemia and alkalosis?

Alkalosis is the blanket term for alkalemia.

15

What are three ways pH is controlled in the body?

1. Lungs: can remove CO2 (rapid-minutes)2. Kidneys: removes H+, retains HCO3- (slow- days)3. Buffering: resists pH change (instantaneous)

16

True or False. Buffering is a process of equalizing pH in an instantaneous fashion by removing H+ from the ECF.

False

17

If the body's pH decreases, what will happen to the rate of ventilation?

increase

18

how does the kidney regulate pH?

by either excreting acidic or basic urine.

19

which regulatory organ can only deal with volatile acids?

Lungs

20

Which organ can deal with either volatile or nonvolatile acids?

Kindeys

21

How would the kidneys best serve to raise the pH of the body?

To retain HCO3. This is better than excreting H+

22

Excreting 1 HCO3 is equivalent to adding or subtracting how many H+ ions?

it is equivalent to adding 1 H+

23

bicarbonate is important in buffering in which location of the body?

ECF

24

phosphate is important in buffering in which locations?

intracellular fluid and the renal tubules

25

What are the three molecules that can act as a buffer?

1. bicarbonate2. phosphate3. proteins (negatively charged)

26

protein is important in buffering in which locations?

intracellular and extracellular

27

What is Ka?

The inverse of the association constant. It is ratio-ly dependent of the concentration of the component parts.

28

When is the pH equal to the pKa?

When [A-] is the same as [HA].

29

When are buffers most effective?

When the buffer capacity is plus or minus 1 pH.

30

Can buffers change the pH?

No, they help a solution RESIST a change in pH.

31

What are the most important regulators of intracellular pH?

1. Ion transporters2. protein buffering3. phosphate buffer system

32

What is the pH inside of cells?

7.1

33

What is respiratory acidosis or alkalosis?

a condition pertaining to the increase or decrease in blood CO2.

34

What is metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?

Disturbance in blood pH that relate to HCO3- levels. Generally they have their roots in kidney function.