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Flashcards in Colombo: Respiratory System Deck (67):
1

What structures make up the conducting zone?

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles

2

What structures make up the respiratory zone?

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli

3

What structures are considered part of the upper respiratory tract?

nasal cavity through the start of the larynx

4

Which structures are considered part of the lower respiratory tract

larynx through the lungs

5

What are the functions of the nasal passage?

1. warm and humidify air2. removal of retention of pathogens/particulate matter3. olfaction4. trap to drain out paranasal sinuses and lacrimal ducts

6

How does the nasal passage serve to warm and humidify inspired air?

Air flows in through the turbinates, which are bone shelf projections that force air into a steady flow over mucosal surfaces. This mucosa has a lamina propria layer that has a complex capillary loop system that releases heat into the inspired air. Seromucus glands release water to humidify the air and they produce mucous to trap particulate air impurities.

7

What antibody is produced in the nasal passageway?

IgA

8

What are the two types of epithelium in the nasal passageway?

1. respiratory epithelium2. Olfactory epithelium

9

Where is the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passageway?

It covers the middle and inferior turbinates as well as rest of conducting portion of the system.

10

Where is the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal passageway?

It covers the superior turbinate and roof of nasal cavity.

11

What are the 5 components of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity and tell me about them?

1. Olfactory neurons: ciliated bipolar olfactory neurons with membrane chemoreceptors2. Supporting cells: pseudostratisfied columnar cells that support the olfactory cells3. basal cells: they are stem cells that replace the olfactory nerve every 2-3 months4. brush cells: columnar cells with microvilli. They have afferent connections to CN V5. Lamina Propria: contains Bowman's glands (olfactory glands) that produce liquid to facilitate odor detection.

12

Why is it important for the larynx to be lined with cartilage?

protection and it also helps participate in sound production

13

What is the lingual surface of the larynx made of?

stratified squamous epithelium

14

The vestibular folds of the larynx also contain what two histological features?

1. glands2. lymphoid nodules

15

What covers the vocal cords?

stratified squamous epithelium

16

What type of epithelium is in the region of the vestibules of the nasal cavity?

Stratified squamous, keratinized to non-keratinized Sebaceous/sweat glands

17

What type of muscle and skeletal support are in the vestibules of the nasal cavity?

hyaline cartilage

18

what is the main function and other features of the vestibules of the nasal cavity?

Vibrissae (stiff hairs) and moisture both filter and humidify air.

19

What type of epithelium is in most areas of the nasal cavity?

respiratory seromucous glands

20

What type of muscle and skeletal support is in most areas of the nasal cavity?

Bone and hyaline cartilage

21

What are the major functions of most areas of the nasal cavity and what are other features that accompany those?

Rich vasculature and glands warm, humidify, and clean the air.

22

What type of epithelium is in the superior areas of the nasal cavity?

Olfactory serous glands (Bowmans glands)

23

What type of muscle and skeletal support is in the superior part of the nasal cavity?

ethmoid bone

24

What is the function of the superior nasal cavity?

solubilize and detect odorant molecules in the air.

25

What type of epithelium line the nasopharynx?

Respiratory, stratified squamous, and seromucous glands

26

What type of muscle and skeletal support are in the nasopharynx?

Bone and skeletal muscle

27

What is a function of the nasopharynx and what are some key features in the nasopharynx?

To conduct air to larynx; pharyngeal and palatine tonsils

28

What is the epithelium found in the larynx?

respiratory, stratified squamous, mucous glands

29

What muscle and skeletal support are in the larynx?

elastic and hyaline cartilage, ligaments, skeletal muscle

30

What are the functions of the larynx?

1. site for phonation2. epiglottis closes while swallowing

31

What is the epithelium that lines the trachea?

respiratory, mucous glands (goblet cells), Basal Cells (progenitor cells)

32

What type of muscle and skeletal support are in the trachea?

cartilage rings of hyaline cartilage, smooth muscle (trachealis)

33

What is the function of the trachea and what is a major feature of the trachea?

To conduct air to primary bronchi; mucous associated lymphatic tissue

34

How many C shaped hyaline cartilage rings are there in the trachea?

16-20

35

How long is the trachea? What is its diameter?

100-120 mm long; 25 mm diameter

36

what is the muscle that pulls the anterior part of the cartilage rings together?

trachealis muscle

37

What are the three layers of the trachea and what are they made of?

1. Mucosa: respiratory epithelium2. Lamina propria (tunica fibromusculocartilaginea): Mixed seromucus glands are located in this submucosa.3. Tunica adventitia: CT

38

What are the two purposes for the trachealis muscle?

1. To more easily allow for swallowing2. To narrow the opening so air can be expelled more forcefully like in a cough.

39

How many times does the bronchial tree branch?

23

40

What is the range of diameter in the bronchial tree?

25 mm at the trachea and 0.5 mm and terminal bronchioles

41

As one descends down the respiratory tract, what histological trends will you find (5)?

1. Epithelium height will decrease2. Cartilage rings will be replaced by isolated blocks or irregular plates then go away altogether at level of bronchioles.3. Trachealis muscle is replaced with bundles of smooth muscle that spiral around the airways4. Amount of elastic fibers and smooth muscle proportionally increases.5. Goblet cells and glands proportionally decrease.6. Bronchus associated lymphatic tissue will increase (BALT)

42

What are the three layers of the lamina propria and what are they made of?

1. Mucosa: Resp. epithelium, but as it descends it becomes simple ciliated columnar.2. Lamina Propria: Smooth muscle, elastic tissue, (in primary) cartilage rings that give way to plates in secondary bronchi and down.3. Tunica Adventitia: CT

43

What type of epithelium are in the bronchioles?

ciliated cuboidal epithelium with some goblet cells

44

Where does cartilage stop in the respiratory tract?

bronchioles

45

What is the most predominant tissue in the bronchioles?

smooth muscle

46

What type of epithelium and cells are in terminal bronchioles?

simple cuboidal ciliated cells, also club cells

47

What are club cells?

club shaped, non-ciliated cells found in terminal bronchioles. They have secretory granules and secrete surfactant and antimicrobial peptides. They are also progenitor cells.

48

What is different about the smooth muscle tissue in terminal bronchioles vs higher-up bronchioles?

There is not as much smooth muscle here.

49

How many alveoli are there in the lungs?

300 million per lung

50

What is the transition zone and where is it located?

The area that separates the conduction zone from the respiration zone. This occurs as the terminal bronchioles become respiratory bronchioles.

51

What type of epithelium are in the alveoli?

simple squamous epithelium

52

What separates alveoli?

inter-alveoli septa

53

How are alveoli connected to each other?

By alveolar pores also known as pores of Kohn.

54

What are some pros and cons of alveolar pores?

Pros: 1. They can distribute air evenly and equalize pressure2. They will help prevent total loss of ventilation in event of bronchiole being blockedCons: can allow the spread of bacteria and neoplasms

55

What are the 3 types of alveolar cells?

1. Type 1 pneumocyte2. Type II pneumocyte3. Dust cell

56

How are type I pneumocytes joined together?

tight junctions

57

How much of the alveolar surface do type I pneumocytes make up?

95%

58

What do type I pneumocytes do?

Make a very thin wall for gas exchange.

59

What do type II pneumocytes look like?

Larger cuboidal cells

60

What do type II pneumocytes do?

Make surfactant and serve and progenitor cells for tissue renewal.

61

What do dust cells do?

They are macrophages and eat "stuff"

62

How far down in the respiratory tract does epithelium go?

All the way

63

How far down in the respiratory tract do goblet cells go?

They end right before terminal bronchioles

64

How far down in the respiratory tract do ciliated cells go?

They end in respiratory bronchioles

65

How far down in the respiratory tract do glands go?

They end right before terminal bronchioles

66

How far down in the respiratory tract does hyaline cartilage go?

They end right before bronchioles

67

How far down in the respiratory tract does smooth muscle go?

They end in alveolar ducts