Flashcards in Colonial Period to the American Revolution (1500-1787) Deck (96):
The earliest inhabitants of America, the Native Americans, are believed to have arrived on the continent by crossing a land bridge which connected _______ to present day Alaska.
Over 10,000 years ago, a slowly receding glacier left open a neck of land between Siberia and present-day Alaska. Waves of people made their way into America across this bridge before it was covered by ocean waters.
The Treaty of ___________, established in 1494, divided land between Spain and Portugal in the Americas.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed upon between Spain and Portugal in 1494. Originally the pope set the "Line of Demarcation" to split up the New World, but it was unfair to the Portuguese, so the two countries worked out their own line.
Spain used armies led by ______________ to conquer the Americas from the Indians.
"Conquistadores" were Spanish adventurers who led soldiers in exploring and seizing American land. Often the European diseases they carried with them were more effective than their weapons in wiping out the Indians.
In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, a Spanish conquistador, crossed the isthmus of ______ and became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
__________________ was a Spanish conquistador who explored and claimed Florida in 1513 (same year as Balboa discovered the Pacific).
Juan Ponce de Leon.
Ponce de Leon searched for gold and the "fountain of youth," and in the process claimed Florida for Spain.
In 1519, _______________, a Spanish conquistador, led an army against the Aztec Indians of Mexico.
Cortes led an expedition to conquer the Aztec Indians. He ended up wiping out the Aztec empire and getting substantial wealth.
________________ led a 600-man expedition through the southeastern portion of North America. He was buried on the banks of the Mississippi River.
Hernando de Soto.
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish Conquistador and played a big role in broadening Spain's knowledge of North America. He landed in Florida in 1539 and led the largest expedition of the 16th and 17th century through the southeast and midwest of the present-day United States.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was a Spanish conquistador who started in ______, and explored what is now the southwestern United States.
Coronado explored what is now the southwestern US. His men ended up being the first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon.
He set out about the same time as de Soto; his goal was to find the "Seven Cities of Cibola," which were supposedly full of gold.
The first country to bring horses to the Native Americans was _____.
Early Spanish explorers such as Coronado brought horses to the Americas, some of which ended up free and resulted in a growing population of wild horses. It wasn't until decades later that the Native Americans learned how to tame and train horses for their own use.
In 1497, __________, an Italian explorer, set out to find a Northwest Passage, and ended up claiming mainland North America for England.
John Cabot was looking for the Northwest Passage--a route to Asia going through the Americas. He found none, but ended up hitting mainland North America and claiming it for England.
In 1534, Jacques Cartier a French explorer, claimed portions of Canada for ______.
Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence river, hoping to find a Northwest Passage to Asia. He ended up claiming large portions of present day Canada for France.
The ______ city in North America is St Augustine, Florida.
St. Augustine, in Florida, was originally built as a fort to protect Spanish land.
In 1588, Spain sent a mighty fleet, the Spanish Armada, to conquer England. This fleet was destroyed by the English navy, and resulted in a war between England and Spain which lasted until ____.
The Jamestown settlement in Virginia was financed by a group of English merchants who formed the ______ Company.
It was given a charter by the king to set up a colony in Virginia. Its goal was profit--not to set up an agricultural community, but a trading post which earned gold.
Sir ______________ started the first English settlement in North America on Roanoke Island, and named a portion of land "Virginia."
Sir Walter Raleigh named the mainland area he intended to colonize Virginia, but Roanoke Island was actually off the coast of present day North Carolina. Roanoke Island did not last long; it was found deserted when the leader returned from a trip to England.
The first permanent settlement in North America by the English was Jamestown. It looked doomed to failure like previous attempts, had it not been for the leadership of __________.
Jamestown, Virginia, was the first permanent settlement by the English in North America. John Smith's leadership was key to its survival.
In 1612, John Rolfe started growing _______ in Virginia, which became a huge cash crop, and motivated England to increase its attempts at settlement.
John Rolfe discovered that tobacco grew well in Virginia. There was a lucrative market for tobacco in Europe, so this gave England a compelling reason to want to colonize America.
In an effort to encourage _________ to settle in Virginia, English settlers were promised the same rights as people in England--this resulted in the first representative assembly in America, the House of Burgesses.
The House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in the English colonies.
__________ servants differed from slaves in that they were free after working for a specified period of time. Also, they had legal rights that could be enforced in court, and there was no social stigma attached to this type of servitude.
Indentured servants were people who paid for their passage from Europe by agreeing to work without pay for a specified time period. Unlike slaves, they were free after fulfilling their contract, and had legal rights. Many settlers in Virginia and Maryland paid their way there by agreeing to work as indentured servants.
The French established a successful fur trade with the Indians in North America. In 1608, a French explorer named ___________________ established a trading post in Quebec, which was the beginning of "New France."
Samuel de Champlain.
In 1609, Holland sent ____________ to search for the Northwestern Passage through America to Asia. He ended up discovering a large river named after him.
Henry Hudson sailed to North America trying to find a Northwestern Passage. He ended up finding the Hudson River. The Dutch went on to establish a profitable fur trade on present-day Manhattan Island, which they named New Amsterdam.
In 1620, the Pilgrims came from England in the Mayflower and settled ________, Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims were originally known as the Separatists, left England for religious freedom, and settled Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Founded in ____, the most important colony founded in the Massachusetts Bay area was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The colony was founded by the Puritans and many of their democratic ideas heavily influenced other English speaking colonies. Many of the early colonists fled to America to escape the religious persecution of King James I.
The Puritans settled Massachusetts in large numbers under the leadership of _____________.
The Puritans settled Massachusetts shortly after the Pilgrims. By 1642, there were over 20,000 puritan settlers.
The ________ who founded the New England colony did not believe in separation of church and state--they followed strict moral codes which were enforced by the government.
The Puritans followed strict moral codes. Judges administered the laws of the colony and the rules of the church. Education was important to the Puritans, and they had a high literacy rate because every person needed to be able to read the Bible.
A puritan preacher, ______________, founded Providence, Rhode Island after being asked to leave Massachusetts for his disruptive activities.
Roger Williams was a Puritan preacher who ended up fleeing from Massachusetts and founding Providence. He later combined Providence, Portsmouth and several other settlements to create Rhode Island.
_______________ was banished from Massachusetts by the Puritans and ended up founding Portsmouth.
Anne Hutchinson founded Portsmouth, in what is now Rhode Island.
In 1636, Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts and founded ________.
Thomas Hooker led a group of settlers to found Hartford, in what is now Connecticut.
The Massachusetts colony was founded primarily to show the world how a proper _________ society should be.
The Puritans settled Massachusetts with the intent of creating a model Christian community. Religious freedom was a secondary reason.
Roger William's colony, Rhode Island, was unique in that it granted complete religious __________.
____________ was one of the colonies which did not have an established church, and was known for its climate of freedom and diversity, with Quakers, Presbyterians, Catholics, and Jews settling there.
Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn, was known for its complete religious freedom, as opposed to mere religious toleration. It was one of the four colonies which did not have an established church--the other three being New Jersey, Delaware, and Rhode Island.
Roger Williams believed that there should be no government ____________ with religion, and established Rhode Island.
After being banished from New England, Roger Williams founded the Rhode Island colony. Part of the reason he was banned from New England was that he was outspoken on his belief that the government should not have control over religion.
Maryland was founded as a refuge for English _________, and was a gift from the King of England to Lord Baltimore for his loyalty.
Maryland was founded by Lord Baltimore, and guaranteed political rights to all Christians.
Virginia was the first English colony founded for trade and profit instead of for _________ reasons.
Most of the earliest colonies were founded for religious reasons; Virginia was founded for trade and profit--primarily through the growth of tobacco.
The North Carolina colony developed as an overflow from the ________ colony.
The North Carolina colony was founded by settlers who drifted down from Virginia. Originally, the Carolinas were one colony, but differences in interest and outlook resulted in two different colonies.
The South Carolina colony was settled by emigrants from the overcrowded West Indies. They started Charleston, named after the King, and had ____ as a cash crop.
The South Carolina colony was settled by emigrants from the West Indies. From the beginning, South Carolina had slavery as a fully developed institution.
The _____ colony of New Netherlands was conquered by James, the Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II, and became New York.
James, the Duke of York, conquered New Netherlands with little bloodshed. He renamed it New York.
The __________ colony was founded by two of the proprietors who owned the Carolinas.
New Jersey was founded when King James II granted a chunk of New York to two of the original Carolinas proprietors.
The New England colony had a significantly higher life expectancy and ________ rate than the other colonies.
The New England colony, predominantly Puritan, had a life expectancy 25-30 years higher than other colonists. They were also better educated.
In colonial times, black slaves were at the ______ of Southern society.
By the early eighteenth century, black slaves ___________ the white population of South Carolina.
Due to the large numbers of slaves imported, by the early 18th century, black slaves outnumbered the white population in South Carolina. There were a large number of slaves in the Chesapeake colonies as well, but South Carolina had the most since it was dominated by large populations.
The objective of British Mercantilism was to maximize the nation's ______.
British mercantilism, which is taken from the word "merchant," involved managing the economy, as opposed to allowing free markets, to maximize profits for Britain.
The __________ Acts passed by the British Parliament severely limited with who and how the colonies could trade. There were four parts to these Acts, passed between 1651 and 1673.
The Navigation Acts were passed, limiting who the colonies could trade with. It drove down the price of American goods, and raised the price of British goods, angering the colonists.
Under the Navigation Acts, certain products could be shipped only to England. At the same time, the colonies gained an advantage in the British market for many of these products, to include iron, raw silk, hemp, and _____ stores (i.e. masts, tar, pitch).
Iron, raw silk, hemp, and naval stores are examples of some items for which Great Britain gave the colonies a market advantage. Naval stores include items such as masts, yards, bowsprits, etc.--the northern colonies were known for their shipbuilding.
In 1676, England sent troops and ships to Virginia as a result of Bacon's _________, led by Nathaniel Bacon.
Bacon's Rebellion was started by Nathaniel Bacon. He ended up dying of dysentery, but as a result England sent troops to Virginia, and tried to run the colony more strictly.
In 1675, around 2000 settlers were killed by _______ in what is known as King Phillip's War.
Indians. King Phillip's War, led by Wampanoag chief King Phillip, resulted in the death of around 2000 settlers.
King _____ II had a plan to create a unified government for New England, New York, and New Jersey, which he planned on calling the Dominion of New England.
This was to be called the Dominion of New England, and would get rid of the representative assemblies currently in those colonies, and would impose the Church of England on the Puritans.
A total of __ people were killed in the Salem Witch Trials in Salem Village.
20. Twenty people were executed before Puritan ministers could intervene.
Pennsylvania was founded as a ______ for a group of people called the Quakers, who wanted to escape persecution for their beliefs.
Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for the Quakers by William Penn. Penn received the land for Pennsylvania from King Charles and personally worked to maintain peaceful relations with the local Indians.
King William's War, which was mainly fought in Europe did result in raids by Indians. It eventually was resolved with the Treaty of _______.
King William's War in 1689 was primarily fought in Europe, and lasted 8 years.
__________'s War, started in 1702 against France and Spain, gave Britain major territorial gains and trade advantages. It was ended with the Treaty of Utrecht.
Queen Anne. Queen Anne's War was started in 1702, and lasted 11 years.
In 1739, King George's War was fought with France and Spain, and was the first of England's wars in which the colonist troops played a major role. It was ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-________.
King George's War lasted nine years, and thousands of colonial troops were killed fighting the French.
The _______ colony was founded in 1732 to act as a buffer between South Carolina and Florida. It was to be settled by the debtors and paupers who filled English jails.
General James Oglethorpe founded the Georgia colony, which ended up being a lot like South Carolina.
Prior to the American Revolution, Tobacco from the __________ region accounted for nearly half of Britain's trade with the colonies.
Before the cotton gin, tobacco was the most profitable crop to grow in America, and accounted for nearly half of the colonies' exports. Before the American Revolution, due to the Navigation Acts, the colonies were not allowed to export products to countries other than Britain.
The headright system was implemented by the London Company in Virginia to stimulate ___________. Every head of family already in Virginia received 50 acres of land, and 50 acres of land was given to every person who came to the colony.
This was known as the "headright" system. The London Company owned the charter for Virginia, and hoped to populate its colony without expense by offering the one resource it had plenty of--land.
In the 18th century, an intellectual movement was occurring in Europe, centered around the concept of ___________. This movement was known as the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment movement was embraced by some Americans, and one of the most famous American followers was Ben Franklin.
An English philosopher during the "Enlightenment" came up with a set of natural laws, saying that governments who did not provide the rights of life, liberty, and property could be __________. His name was John Locke.
John Locke came up with this "law of nature," which many Americans equated with the universal law of God.
The author of Poor Richard's Almanac was _________________, and it contained bits of wisdom and humor.
From the 1720's the 1740's a movement known as the Great Awakening occurred in the colonies, resulting in the founding of some Ivy ______ Schools and a division in the religious community between "Old Lights", and "New Lights. "
The Great Awakening was a time of religious revivals, and resulted in a division in the religious community.
The French and Indian War was started in 1754 when George Washington was ordered to lead militiamen to expel the French settling in Western ____________.
The French and Indian War lasted seven years, and was known as the "Seven Year's War" in Europe.
The _________________ War resulted in France losing all of its lands in North America, and expanded Britain's holdings to include Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi River.
French and Indian.
The French and Indian War, ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris resulted in enormous expansion of England's land holdings in North America.
In 1763, George Grenville became prime minister of England, and was the first in a string of English leaders who ________ the colonists to the point of the Revolutionary war.
George Grenville passed laws through Parliament such as the Sugar Act, the Proclamation of 1763, and the Stamp Act.
The Sugar Act of 1764 was the _____ act passed by the English Parliament to raise tax revenues in the American colonies. The purpose of the new revenue was to pay off the English debts incurred during the French and Indian War.
George Grenville pushed the Sugar Act through Parliament in 1764. It required high taxes be paid on goods imported into the colonies including molasses and sugar. Additionally the Act complicated the shipment of colonial goods requiring ship's captains to fill out a variety of confusing forms, the failure to do so resulting in the entire cargo being subject to seizure. Also, the Sugar Act ignored traditional government protections for a fair trial. Americans suspected of smuggling were no longer to be tried by a jury of their peers and instead were tried by judges of the Royal Admiralty. These British judges would receive five percent of any confiscated cargo and therefore were very motivated to find suspects guilty.
The ____________ of 1763, passed by George Grenville, did not allow settlers to move west of the Appalachians.
The Proclamation of 1763 forbade settlers from moving west of the Appalachians, and was supposed to appease the Indians, who were constantly attacking settlers and costing England a lot of money.
The ________ Act of 1764 made it illegal for the colonies to issue paper money and required taxes be paid in gold or silver, also known as "specie".
Specie means "hard money" and in the time of the American colonies it usually meant silver but it could also mean gold.
The Stamp Act passed in 1765 was the first ___ imposed directly on the Americans, and required them to purchase revenue stamps for practically anything they purchased.
The Stamp Act, passed because of George Grenville, was one of the significant things that England did which made the colonists angry and suspicious.
Samuel Adams formed the Sons of _______ to resist English tyranny as a result of the Stamp Act and other unfair laws.
Grenville was replaced with Lord __________, who repealed the hated Stamp Act, and passed the Declaratory Act, which stated that England had the right to impose any laws or taxes on the colonies.
The Declaratory Act was aimed at the Americans' complaints of "taxation without representation." Most Americans, happy with the repeal of the Stamp Act, ignored the Declaratory Act.
George Grenville was replaced by Lord Rockingham, who was quickly replaced by Charles Townshend, who passed the Townshend Acts. What was known as the Boston ________ occurred soon after.
Charles Townshend had Parliament pass what was known as the Townshend Acts, which was another attempt by England to impose taxes on the colonists. Many colonists resisted, and five Bostonians were killed in the "Boston Massacre."
Charles Townshend was replaced by Lord North, and all taxes were repealed except for the tax on tea. Relations settled down between the colonists and England until the ___ Act of 1773.
The Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773. This lowered the cost of British tea, making it cheaper than smuggled tea even though it was taxed. This resulted in the Boston Tea Party, where Bostonians dressed as Indians boarded a British merchant ship and threw the tea overboard.
Under the Navigation Acts, England had a ________ over the American colonies' shipping.
The Navigation Acts were meant to make the colonies and parent country dependent on each other--foreign vessels could not trade with English colonies, English vessels had a monopoly over all colonial shipping, and for certain products, the colonies could only trade with England, and the English merchants could only purchase these products from the colonies.
The Boston _________ was Boston's response to the Tea Act of 1773, and involved people dressed as Indians boarding a British merchant ship and dumping the tea overboard.
The Boston Tea Party was organized by the Sons of Liberty, who dressed as Indians and dumped thousands of dollars worth of tea into the ocean.
The Tea Act gave the British East India Company a ________ on all tea shipped to America, allowing the East India Company to charge prices lower than the tea smuggled in by colonial merchants.
The Tea Act, also known as the East India Company Act, resulted in the Boston Tea Party as Americans resisted buying British tea. In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts.
The British response to the Boston Tea Party in the form of five acts was known by the Americans as the ___________ Acts.
The colonists called the Quebec Act and the four acts passed in response to the Boston Tea Party the "Intolerable Acts."
In response to the ________ Acts, which the colonists called the Intolerable Acts, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in September 1774.
The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and tried to negotiate with Parliament, in addition to calling for the colonists to boycott and to prepare local militias to respond to possible use of military force by the English.
The Continental Congress of 1774 resulted in the adoption of the Suffolk ________ which declared the Intolerable Acts unconstitutional.
Resolves. Additionally, the Suffolk Resolves created a colonial association to enforce the non-importation boycott.
The Intolerable Acts placed the Massachusetts colony under military rule and forced colonists to provide food and housing for the ________ who ruled them.
These were two of the main acts in the five acts known as the Intolerable Acts. In response to the Intolerable Acts, the First Continental Congress met to assert American rights and demand repeal of the Intolerable Acts.
The First Continental Congress was created in answer to the Intolerable Acts. England decided to ______ this Congress, however, and marched on Concord, starting the Revolutionary War.
They marched on Concord, Massachusetts, intending to destroy a stockpile of colonial arms. The arms were gone, but a skirmish between colonial militia and the British broke out. This was the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
The _________ battle of the war was fought at Bunker Hill, on June 17, 1775. Over one thousand British soldiers were killed or wounded.
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought when the Americans fortified a hill from which they planned to bombard the British troops who were occupying Boston. The British lost over a thousand men trying to seize control of this hill.
In May, ____, the Second Continental Congress met, making a final plea to King George to intercede and restore peace. It also put George Washington in command of the New England army surrounding Boston.
The Second Continental Congress met in May 1775. The "Olive Branch Petition" was their attempt to get King George to come up with a peaceful solution to the conflict.
In January 1776, ____________ wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet arguing for complete independence.
Common Sense argued for complete independence, and is considered to have swayed thousands of Americans who had half-formed feelings about going to war with Britain. At around the same time, in March of 1776, Abigail Adams was pushing for the rights of women to not be forgotten. Though Abigail Adams did not disagree with women's limited role for the most part, she did believe that they deserved some rights. The most important rights that she wanted for women were the rights to education, as well as legal and political rights. In a letter to John Adams in 1776, she told him, "Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation."
The Prohibitory Act by England was virtually a declaration of ___ on America, by declaring the colonies in rebellion.
The Prohibitory Act was declared by England as they made preparation for all out war against the colonies.
Early in the Revolutionary War, Fort ___________ was captured by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold.
Who was Frances Willard?
The Dutch West India Company instituted the relatively unsuccessful patroon system. What was the goal of that system?
The settlement of New Netherland with a land-tending population.
In the Patroon system, large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land.
_________________ was an author of children's stories.
Louisa May Alcott.
She is best known for penning Little Women.
Crazy Horse was a part of the _____________ tribe.
Crazy Horse was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the United States Federal government, most famously, The Battle of the Little Bighorn.
________________ was a literate, skilled carpenter and leader among African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina. He is notable as the accused and convicted ringleader of "the rising," a major potential slave revolt planned for the city in June 1822; he was executed.
Denmark Vesey (also Telemaque) (ca. 1767 - July 2, 1822)
_____________ is the process or completion of rising to the top and being the best.
"All men and woman are created equal" Is from the _________________________________________
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Was the coauthor of this document signed in 1848 at Seneca Falls New York
What was Tecumseh and his brother Tenskatawa, also know as the Prophet's, response to westward expansion?
Built a confederation of more than two dozen indian nations, all of whom hoped to stop the American Settler encroachment.
For what was Catherine Beecher well known?__________________________________________
outspoken advocate for women's education .
German immigrants settled mainly in New York and Pennsylvania (where they were known as the "Pennsylvania Dutch"). Scotch-Irish immigrants moved into the ___________ mountain valleys of Virginia and North Carolina.
Who was Phyllis Wheatley?
1st published female African American poet.
What happened in the "burned out district" of NY?
The 2nd Great Awakening.