Colorectal Cancer Flashcards Preview

GastroIntestinal (GI) > Colorectal Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (16):
1

What is a colorectal polyp?

A growth in GI tract

2

What is the benign colorectal neoplasia?

Adenom

3

What is the malignant colorectal neoplasia?

Adenocarcinoma

4

What is the first mutation to occur in colorectal cancer?

APC

Kras then is mutated

Then other mutations (P53 and 18q)
Colorectal cancer arrises from a number of genetic changes

5

What is the colorectal cancer pathology?

Polypoidal - starts off as a polyp
Ulcerative - the polyp moves through the wall and ulcerates
Annular

6

Where are polyps generally located?

In the sigmoid colon or the rectum

7

What is the histological classification of an adenoma?

Tubular or Villous

If an ademoma is villous it is more likely to undergo malignant change

8

What pathological stagings can be done for cancer?

Dukes - this allows a staging system (Breaks it down to A,B,C,D)

TNM - Tumour, Nodes, Metastases

9

What is the Duke's staging system for cancer?

A - invades through the muscle, but not through the muscle wall
B - Through the muscle wall
C - Local metastasis
D - Distant metastasis

10

How does exercise reduce the rate of cancer?

AMPK is activated by exercise
This increases glucose uptake and decreased cell turnover
LKB1 regulated AMPK and this is a tumour suppressor - mutation can cause increased oncogenesis

11

What are the clinical features of colorectal cancer?

Pain
Rectal bleeding
change in bowel habit
Tenesmus - uncomfortable feeling of needing to go to the toilet but can't

12

What would be found on investigation in colorectal cancer?

Anaemia
Cachexia
Lymphadenopathy
Masses
Hepatomegaly
Distension
Blood in rectum

13

What diagnostic tests can be done for Colorectal cancer?

Barium Enema
CT colography
Endoscope - gold standard

14

What are the signs of obstruction by cancer?

Distension
Constipation
Pain
vomiting
Bleeding
Perforation

15

What is the treatment for obstruction caused by colorectal cancer?

Colostomy alone

Resection + colostomy

Stenting

16

What chemotherapy is used for colorectal cancers?

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)