Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (16):
What is a colorectal polyp?
A growth in GI tract
What is the benign colorectal neoplasia?
What is the malignant colorectal neoplasia?
What is the first mutation to occur in colorectal cancer?
Kras then is mutated
Then other mutations (P53 and 18q)
Colorectal cancer arrises from a number of genetic changes
What is the colorectal cancer pathology?
Polypoidal - starts off as a polyp
Ulcerative - the polyp moves through the wall and ulcerates
Where are polyps generally located?
In the sigmoid colon or the rectum
What is the histological classification of an adenoma?
Tubular or Villous
If an ademoma is villous it is more likely to undergo malignant change
What pathological stagings can be done for cancer?
Dukes - this allows a staging system (Breaks it down to A,B,C,D)
TNM - Tumour, Nodes, Metastases
What is the Duke's staging system for cancer?
A - invades through the muscle, but not through the muscle wall
B - Through the muscle wall
C - Local metastasis
D - Distant metastasis
How does exercise reduce the rate of cancer?
AMPK is activated by exercise
This increases glucose uptake and decreased cell turnover
LKB1 regulated AMPK and this is a tumour suppressor - mutation can cause increased oncogenesis
What are the clinical features of colorectal cancer?
change in bowel habit
Tenesmus - uncomfortable feeling of needing to go to the toilet but can't
What would be found on investigation in colorectal cancer?
Blood in rectum
What diagnostic tests can be done for Colorectal cancer?
Endoscope - gold standard
What are the signs of obstruction by cancer?
What is the treatment for obstruction caused by colorectal cancer?
Resection + colostomy