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Flashcards in Comm 150 Midterm Deck (75):

According to Pelham and Blanton, what are the 4 canons of science?

They are 4 basic assumptions that all scientists have about the world. Determination, Empiricism, Parsimony, and Testability


Canon 1: Determination

Study has a meaningful systematic cause


Canon 2: Empiricism

Study will make observations


Canon 3: Parsimony

Study will include and look into only the necessary information


Canon 4: Testability

Study should have an element that is able to be tested


According to Pelham and Blanton, what are the 4 "things" we can use to try and figure out what the world is like? What are the other 2 that Peterson added?

Intuition (common sense), Logic (reasoning), Authority (experts), and Observation (personal experience)

Tradition custom or faith, and magic superstition and mysticism


What is academic research?

It is scholarly research, it is subject to ethical concerns through the IRB; quality is very important (may take longer) . Tenure-track faculty.


What is proprietary research?

It is industry based, applied research, where speed is very important and competitiveness is a big factor. Might have focus groups.


What is basic research? Is it academic or proprietary?

It is designed to test and refine theories. It is academic.


What is applied research? It is academic or proprietary?

It is designed to solve a practical problem. It is proprietary.


How is tenure to professors important?

Allows professors to conduct research, take some time off, and choose subject that might not necessarily be interesting


How is the news proprietary research?

It involves polling, sampling, and using survey data to answer questions about a current issue.


What are some of the issues in the 2008 debate video?

They do not mention the margin of error, it is done in Las Vegas (where some people might need money), results are not clear, there is no independence of measurement, groupthink, piggybacking, 2 questions presented as one,


What is an independent variable?

It is a variable that is thought to influence changes in another


What is a dependent variable?

It is a variable thought to be changed by another


What is the IRB and what do they do?

The IRB is the Institutional Review Board, it is made up of attorneys, researchers in many fields, exerts and community people. They indicate whether studies are ethical to perform.


What is the research process?

Conceptualization, Planning and designing research, Methodologies for conducting research, Analyzing and interpreting data, and Reconceptualization


What are the 3 ways we explain our experience?

Metaphysical (religion and astrology)
Philosophy (intuition, logic, and observations)
Science (systematic and empiricism)


What are the 3 research cultures?

Physical sciences, humanities, and social sciences


How can we prove causality?

We need to use random assignment to condition and be able to say that the two variables are correlated.


What is the margin of error?

Our willingness to accept error in a study. Usually .5 in the social sciences and .001 in the medical sciences


What are laws?

They are commonly believed fundamental ways that things operate. For example: Law of Gravity


What are theories?

Casual statements between two or more variables which are supported by hypotheses testing


What are hypotheses?

Predictions about variables based on observation, logic, AND theoretical underpinnings


How do research questions vary from hypotheses?

Research questions include more open ended questions, which direction we think variables are going are not always predicted. Hypotheses include more measurable predictions based on rationale.


What are the 2 paradigms of the social sciences?

Positivism and Naturalism


What is positivism?

Independence, adherence to the scientific method, quantitative research. Uses deductive reasoning (moving from general to specific predictions)


What is naturalism?

Socially constructed nature of reality, qualitative research, factual/realistic representation of the way life is, uses inductive reasoning (moving from specific to general predictions)


What is naturalistic research?

People in their natural settings, unable to control environments, empower marginalized groups, and to describe interpret and repotrt


What are the 3 types of research articles?

Empirical research, review (articles, books), and theory articles (rarely have data)


What is internal validity?

Are you measuring what you intended to measure?


What is external validity?

Can you generalize the study to the real world?


What were some ethical issues with the Stanford Experiment?

Ecological validity messed with people's psyches, vulnerable population(perhaps), not stopped soon enough


What did the Milgram study show?

Authority is very important when choosing whether to shock people or not. If one person rebels, most people do, and it not, then most people don't. We think in groups.


What are external ethics?

Has to do with subjects and whether they agree to participate (voluntary, no deception, there is privacy, and no physical or psychological harm), it is okay for society in general, approved by the IRB, and data collected should be anonymous


What are internal ethics?

There is communality of data (it is shared), transparency of methods are explained, and intellectual honesty


How do we operationally define the dependent variable?

We mention what we expect to find, such as "number of heart incidents within a 1 year period". Conceptualizations that lead to prediction, which need to be measurable and clear when you carry out the study.


What are the main effects in a study?

Variation in one variable controlling for variation in others


What are the interactions in a study?

Variation of one variable dependent on variation of others. The differences in the levels of one IV are dependent on the levels of the other IVs.


Big Internal Validity problems with the Chef John study

measurement scale unclear, independence of measurements, the chef was also a participant, the order of how they ate the pizzas, and then all the limitations of the pizzas


Measurement scale:Nominal

Nom= name. It is categorically, not meaningfully ordered.


Measurement scale:Ordinal

Order= order. Items that can be ordered, but they are not meaningfully added or subtracted. Such as ranking, birth order.


Measurement scale: Interval

Contains relative differences in magnitude. Sometimes can have negative values, but are separated by equal values. Such as, SAT and the likert scale. No you cannot like something half as much as I do.


Measurement scale: Ratio

Like interval, but there can be no negatives. There are differences between the scale. YES you can weight half as me.


Methodological issues of the Chef John Study

Can be different due to another factor, they only used one restaurant, they didnt have a control factor, and maybe add another restaurant as an independent variable


How can a controlling factor help you?

A confounding factor can help to eliminate confounding variables, so that there is nothing else that someone can contribute the results to


Extraneous variable: nuisance variable, third variable, noise, and artifact

Can impact the generalizability of the study. Affects the impact of the IC and the generalizability/external validity of the study.


Confounding variable

third variable, or nuisance, that varies systematically along with the levels of the independent variable. All threats to internal validity can be considered confounding variables


Internal validity

Are you measuring what you intend to measure? Is the research done such that the findings are accurate?


External validity

Deals with the generalizability of the study. Are they generalizable to different contexts? Studies high in external validity are generalizable to other contexts.


Ecological validity

How well does it relate to people interacting with their environments? Naturalistic studies. This helps in establishing external validity.


Conceptual validity

Hypotheses must be appropriate to the broader study. It must follow logically from the theory that we are investigating OR is there a different way to go about this.


Construct Validity

How well does the IVs and the DVs represent the construct? How well do we operationalize the studies? Such as, emotions are too hard to study.



Most popular athlete has to do with all of their followers on instagram and twitter


Reliability of the study

the consistency or repeatability of the study. Can we do the study again and get the same results?


Reliability - Internal consistency

Measures meant to measure the same construct should yield consistent results.


Temporal Consistency

Or re-test reliability


Passage of Time

History, something that happens between the testing conditions that may affect the measures (raise happened). Maturation, something occurs within the participant.


Regression toward the mean

statistically scores tend to regress toward the mean, such as Normal Powell basketball


Ceiling Effect/Floor Effect

Upper/lower limits of the variable



People leave the study in the middle.


Homogenous attririon

people leave at about the same amount all over the condition


Heterogenous attrition

people leave more in one condition than the other


Hawthorne Effect

People perform better when they are observed


Sleeper Effect

Some changes may occur over long periods of time.(mass media)


Demand characteristics of the study

participants guess the nature of the study and want to help the researcher get the appropriate results


participant reactance

want to disconfirm


evaluation apprehension

they do not want to appear a certain way, so they lie


Researcher personal attribute effect

researchers may react a certain way they act friendly, angry, etc


Researcher unintentional expectancy effect

Body language- they smile when subjects confirm their hypothesis. Overlaps with demand characteristics


Observe drift

observational behavior changes over time, long observational tasks


Observer bias

unintentional expectancy effect, but researcher gives the desired response


Halo Effect

researcher gives a better or worse rating based on previous performance


Double blind procedures

in order to limit bias, experimenters and participants will be assigned without knowing


Selection Bias

Where are you getting your participants?