Common Dermatological Problems Flashcards Preview

Sem 3: Integ > Common Dermatological Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Dermatological Problems Deck (12):
1

What is atopic eczema?

  • Most common form of eczema - 15% prevalence in population
  • In 60% of children will clear by adolescence
  • Defective skin barrier causing skin to become more susceptible to irritation by soap, contact irritants, weather, temperature etc
  • Chronic or acute flares
  • Usually associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma

2

Describe the acute and chronic histology of atopic eczema. 

  • Acute stage – oedema of the epidermis (spongiosis), intraepidermal vesicles form, which coalesce/form blisters/rupture
  • Chronic stage - loss of vescicles, epidermis thickens:
    • stratum spinosum - acanthosis 
    • stratum corneum - hyperkeratosis 

3

How is atopic eczema treated?

  • Lotions, creams, ointments - all emollients 
  • Soap substitutes
  • Intermittent topical steroids
  • Others: antibiotics, antihistamines

4

What is psoriasis?

  • Chronic inflammatory disorder
  • Common - 1-2% of population
  • Focal, inflamed, oedematous plaques covered with silvery white scale
  • Can affect any age
  • Scaly skin condition
  • Mostly affects extensor surfaces - sacrum, scalp, ears, palms, soles, nails

5

Describe the histology of psoriasis. 

  • Reduced epidermal transit time - from 30 days normally to 6 days in psoriasis
  • Hyperproliferation and thickening of epidermis

6

Name the treatments for psoriasis. 

  • Topical creams, emollients
  • Topical steroids
  • Coal tar
  • Salicylic acid
  • Vitamin D analogues - calcipotriol 
  • Dithranol 

7

Severe cases of psoriasis are treated by a dermatologist using what techniques?

  • UV phototherapy
  • Systemics - methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin
  • Biologics - monoclonal Abs against TNF/IL, must meet specific criteria r.e. disease severity and quality of life

8

What is acne vulgaris?

  • Affects areas of skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles
  • Overactivity of pilo-sebaceous units secondary to hormonal stimulation
  • Hyperproliferation of follicular epidermis with subsequent follicle plugging 
  • Presence and activity of propionibacterium acnes with the above setting
  • Greasy skin condition

9

Describe the common treatments for acne. 

  • Topical retinoids
  • Topical antibiotics
  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Oral antibiotics 
  • Oral contraceptive pill

10

What is impetigo?

  • Most common bacterial skin infection in children - staphylococcus aureus with/without streptococcus pyogenes
  • Begins with single erythematous macule which evolves into vesicle or pustule, then ruptures
  • Exudate dries to fold classic golden crust
  • If mild and localised - topical fucidin 
  • If extensive - oral flucloxacillin 

11

What is tinea? 

  • Most commonly caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum
  • Short history, itchy
  • Slowly enlarging, annular, scaly, erythematous plaque with well-defined edge and central clearing, asymmetric distribution 
  • Under microscopy - hyphae visible

12

Describe the treatments for tinea. 

  • Topical azole (e.g. clotrimazole) or allylamine (e.g. terbinafine) for 2 weeks
  • Systemic therapy may be indicated if extensive, immunosuppression, resistance to topical therapy
  • Nails – Terbinafine for 6 weeks (fingernails) or 3- 4 months (toenails) or pulsed itraconazole
  • Monitoring for adverse effects and drug interactions