Flashcards in Common Skin Disorders Deck (55)
Dermatitis is also known as Eczema, what are 3 common causes?
1. Allergic or contact dermatitis: poison ivy
2. Actinic: Photosensitivity, reaction to sunlight, UV
3. Atopic: etiology unknown, may be hereditary
Dermatitis can be classified as acute, subacute or chronic. describe the acute stage of dermatitis.
Red, oozing, crusting rash; extensive erosions, exudate, pruritic vesicles
Describe the subacute phase of dermatitis
Erythematous skin, scaling, scattered plaques
Describe the chronic stage of dermatitis.
Thickened skin, increased skin marking secondary to scratching; fibrotic papules, and nodules; post-inflammatory pigmentation changes
Name this pathology: Superficial skin infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci and is associated with inflammation; small puss-filled vesicles, itching.
True or False: Impetigo is highly contagious and is common in children and elderly
Name this pathology: Suppurative inflammation of cellular or connective tissue in or close to skin. Usually presents as hot, red, and edematous
What is the medical management for cellulitis?
2. Elevation of the part
3. Cool, wet dressings
What may occur if cellulitis is left untreated?
Lymphangitis, gangrene, abscess and sepsis
Who is at risk for getting cellulitis?
Elderly and individuals with diabetes, wounds, malnutrition, or on steroid therapy are at increased risk
List Viral infections affecting the skin
1. Herpes 1
2. Herpes 2
3. Herpes Zoster (shingles)
Name that viral infection: Itching and soreness, followed by vesicular eruption of the skin on the face or mouth; a cold sore or fever blister
Herpes 1 (herpes Simplex)
Name that viral infection: Common cause of vesicular genital eruption that is spread by sexual contact. In newborns, may cause meningoencephalitis, may be fatal
Name that Viral infection: caused by varicella-zoster that causes chicken poke; virus is reactive after lying dormant for years in cerebral ganglia or ganglia of the posterior nerve root
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
T or F:Pain and tingling affecting spinal or cranial nerve dermatome; progresses to red papules along distribution of infected nerve; red papules progressing to vesicles develop along a dermatome
Shingles (herpes Zoster) may be contagious to individuals who have not had this common childhood viral infection?
Warts are common and usually caused by a benign infection of what?
Human papilloma viruses (HPVs)
A patient has a fungal infection (which are transmitted person-to-person, animal-to-animal) what precautions should be exercises with this patient?
Standard contact precautions
Describe the two types of Lupus Erythematosus.
. Discoid lupus Erythematosus: only affects skins; flare-ups with sun exposure
2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: affects organs and skin, joints. Butterfly rash is characteristic of this
What is a unique characteristic of systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Butterfly rash across bridge of noses
(Also have photosensitivity)
The clinical examination for malignant melanomas can be remembered by “ABCDEs”. List what the ABCDEs are for.
When assessing assymetry of melanoma you are looking for ?
Uneven edges, lopsided
When assessing borders, what is a therapist looking for?
Irregular, poorly defined edges, notching
When examining color what is a therapist assessing?
Variations, especially mixtures of black, blue, red
When assessing diameter what is the therapist looking for?
When assessing elevation what is a therapist looking for?
Usually elevated, but may be flat; moles that change over time
Pruritus is known as?
Pruritus is common with what pathologies??
2. Drug hypersensitivity
Urticaria is a medical describing what?
Smooth, red, elevated patches of skin, hives.
Urticaria is indicative of ?
Allergic response to drug or infection
What is Xeroderma
Excessive dryness of skin with shedding of epithelium
Xeroderma can indicate what?
Abnormal Thyroid function, diabetes
What is clubbing indicative of?
1. Crohn’s or cardiac/cyanosis
2. Lung (cancer, chronic hypoxia)
3. Ulcerative colitis
4. Biliary cirrhosis
6. GI involvement
What test is often positive with clubbing?
Schmroth’s window test
Describe Schamroth’s window test when using for assessing clubbing.
LOSS of Diamond-shaped space when nails form opposite hands are placed back to back
Describe splinter hemorrhages in regards to nails.
Small ares of bleeding under nails that look like slithers
What are splinter hemorrhages a potential sign of?
Cardiac or renal disease
True or false: Changes in Niall (e.g. koilonychia, keukonychia) are often indicate systemic issues unless congenital
Cherry red skin color, or planar erythema could indicate what?
Liver or renal issues
Where should a therapist examine if trying to determine if patient has central cyanosis (bluish color due to decrease hemoglobin)
Lips, oral mucosa, tongue
For peripheral: nails hands or feet
what can pallor indicate?
May indicate anemia, internal hemorrhage, lack of exposure to sunlight
What does yellow skin color indicate?
Jaundice, liver disease
Typically seen in sclera of eyes, lips, skin
Orange-yellow skin typically occurs with an increase in intake of what?
Increased carotene intake
Look for on palms, soles, and face
Describe liver spots.
Yellow-brownish spots which may be due to aging, uterine and liver malignancies, pregnancy
What is brown pigmented skin typically associated with?
Venous insufficiency (ie hemosiderinosis)
When examining skin temperature a therapist should use what part of their hand?
dorsal portion of hand (back of hand) to assess generalized warmth or coolness
What is hyperhidrosis?
Moist skin, increased perspiration
What may hyperhidrosis indicate?
May indicate fevers, pneumonic crisis, drugs, hot drinks, exercise
What is hypohidrosis?
What may hypohidrosis be indicative of?
Dehydration, ichthyosis, or hypothyroidism
Seen in later stages of DM
What is alopecia?
Hypothyroidism causes what changes in hair?
Causes thinning hair
Hyperthyroidism causes what changes in hair?
What is Hirsutism?
Male pattern hair growth (facial and body) in women