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Flashcards in Common Skin Disorders Deck (55)
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1

Dermatitis is also known as Eczema, what are 3 common causes?

1. Allergic or contact dermatitis: poison ivy
2. Actinic: Photosensitivity, reaction to sunlight, UV
3. Atopic: etiology unknown, may be hereditary

2

Dermatitis can be classified as acute, subacute or chronic. describe the acute stage of dermatitis.

Red, oozing, crusting rash; extensive erosions, exudate, pruritic vesicles

3

Describe the subacute phase of dermatitis

Erythematous skin, scaling, scattered plaques

4

Describe the chronic stage of dermatitis.

Thickened skin, increased skin marking secondary to scratching; fibrotic papules, and nodules; post-inflammatory pigmentation changes

5

Name this pathology: Superficial skin infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci and is associated with inflammation; small puss-filled vesicles, itching.

Impetigo

6

True or False: Impetigo is highly contagious and is common in children and elderly

True

7

Name this pathology: Suppurative inflammation of cellular or connective tissue in or close to skin. Usually presents as hot, red, and edematous

Cellulitis

8

What is the medical management for cellulitis?

1. Antibiotics
2. Elevation of the part
3. Cool, wet dressings

9

What may occur if cellulitis is left untreated?

Lymphangitis, gangrene, abscess and sepsis

10

Who is at risk for getting cellulitis?

Elderly and individuals with diabetes, wounds, malnutrition, or on steroid therapy are at increased risk

11

List Viral infections affecting the skin

1. Herpes 1
2. Herpes 2
3. Herpes Zoster (shingles)
4. Warts

12

Name that viral infection: Itching and soreness, followed by vesicular eruption of the skin on the face or mouth; a cold sore or fever blister

Herpes 1 (herpes Simplex)

13

Name that viral infection: Common cause of vesicular genital eruption that is spread by sexual contact. In newborns, may cause meningoencephalitis, may be fatal

Herpes 2

14

Name that Viral infection: caused by varicella-zoster that causes chicken poke; virus is reactive after lying dormant for years in cerebral ganglia or ganglia of the posterior nerve root

Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

15

T or F:Pain and tingling affecting spinal or cranial nerve dermatome; progresses to red papules along distribution of infected nerve; red papules progressing to vesicles develop along a dermatome

True

16

Shingles (herpes Zoster) may be contagious to individuals who have not had this common childhood viral infection?

Chickenpox

17

Warts are common and usually caused by a benign infection of what?

Human papilloma viruses (HPVs)

18

A patient has a fungal infection (which are transmitted person-to-person, animal-to-animal) what precautions should be exercises with this patient?

Standard contact precautions

19

Describe the two types of Lupus Erythematosus.

. Discoid lupus Erythematosus: only affects skins; flare-ups with sun exposure

2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: affects organs and skin, joints. Butterfly rash is characteristic of this

20

What is a unique characteristic of systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Butterfly rash across bridge of noses

(Also have photosensitivity)

21

The clinical examination for malignant melanomas can be remembered by “ABCDEs”. List what the ABCDEs are for.

1. Asymmetry
2. Border
3. Color
4. Diameter
5. Elevation

22

When assessing assymetry of melanoma you are looking for ?

Uneven edges, lopsided

23

When assessing borders, what is a therapist looking for?

Irregular, poorly defined edges, notching

24

When examining color what is a therapist assessing?

Variations, especially mixtures of black, blue, red

25

When assessing diameter what is the therapist looking for?

>6mm

26

When assessing elevation what is a therapist looking for?

Usually elevated, but may be flat; moles that change over time

27

Pruritus is known as?

Itching

28

Pruritus is common with what pathologies??

1. Diabetes
2. Drug hypersensitivity
3. Hyperthyroidism

29

Urticaria is a medical describing what?

Smooth, red, elevated patches of skin, hives.

30

Urticaria is indicative of ?

Allergic response to drug or infection

31

What is Xeroderma

Excessive dryness of skin with shedding of epithelium

32

Xeroderma can indicate what?

Abnormal Thyroid function, diabetes

33

What is clubbing indicative of?

1. Crohn’s or cardiac/cyanosis
2. Lung (cancer, chronic hypoxia)
3. Ulcerative colitis
4. Biliary cirrhosis
5. Neoplasm
6. GI involvement

34

What test is often positive with clubbing?

Schmroth’s window test

35

Describe Schamroth’s window test when using for assessing clubbing.

LOSS of Diamond-shaped space when nails form opposite hands are placed back to back

36

Describe splinter hemorrhages in regards to nails.

Small ares of bleeding under nails that look like slithers

37

What are splinter hemorrhages a potential sign of?

Cardiac or renal disease

38

True or false: Changes in Niall (e.g. koilonychia, keukonychia) are often indicate systemic issues unless congenital

True

39

Cherry red skin color, or planar erythema could indicate what?

Liver or renal issues

40

Where should a therapist examine if trying to determine if patient has central cyanosis (bluish color due to decrease hemoglobin)

Lips, oral mucosa, tongue

For peripheral: nails hands or feet

41

what can pallor indicate?

May indicate anemia, internal hemorrhage, lack of exposure to sunlight

42

What does yellow skin color indicate?

Jaundice, liver disease

Typically seen in sclera of eyes, lips, skin

43

Orange-yellow skin typically occurs with an increase in intake of what?

Increased carotene intake

Look for on palms, soles, and face

44

Describe liver spots.

Yellow-brownish spots which may be due to aging, uterine and liver malignancies, pregnancy

45

What is brown pigmented skin typically associated with?

Venous insufficiency (ie hemosiderinosis)

46

When examining skin temperature a therapist should use what part of their hand?

dorsal portion of hand (back of hand) to assess generalized warmth or coolness

47

What is hyperhidrosis?

Moist skin, increased perspiration

48

What may hyperhidrosis indicate?

May indicate fevers, pneumonic crisis, drugs, hot drinks, exercise

49

What is hypohidrosis?

Dry skin

50

What may hypohidrosis be indicative of?

Dehydration, ichthyosis, or hypothyroidism

Seen in later stages of DM

51

What is alopecia?

Hair loss

52

Hypothyroidism causes what changes in hair?

Causes thinning hair

53

Hyperthyroidism causes what changes in hair?

Silky hair

54

What is Hirsutism?

Male pattern hair growth (facial and body) in women

55

What may hirsutism indicate?

Polycystic ovary syndrome, cushing’s, Tumor, or an inherited trait