Common Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URI) Encountered in Primary Care Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Common Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URI) Encountered in Primary Care > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URI) Encountered in Primary Care Deck (20):
1

What makes up the upper respiratory tract?

-nose
-nasal cavity
-ethmoidal air cells
-frontal sinuses
-maxillary sinus
-sphenoidal sinus
-larynx
-trachea

2

What viruses are implicated in the common cold?

>200 types inc:
-rhinovirus
-coronaviruses
-parainfluenza viruses
-adenoviruses
-enteroviruses

3

Are antibiotics recommended of the common cold?

NO.

4

Are narcotics/antihistamines or antihistamine/decongestants recommended to treat cough or col sx in children?

NO.

5

What is acute rhinosinusitis (sinusitis)?

-inflammation of paranasal sinuses

6

What pathogens cause acute rhinosinusitis?

-majority of viral etiology

Bacterial pathogens:
-Streptococcus pneumonia
-Haemophilus influenzae

other:
-beta-hemolytic streptococcus
-staphylococcus aureus
-anaerobes

7

What are the sx of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS)

PODS

P-facial Pain/pressure/fullness

O: nasal Obstruction

D: nasal purulence/Discoloured postnasal Discharge

S: hyposmia/anosmia (smell)

need at least 2 w P or O included.

8

What are the complications of acute rhinosinusitis?

-local extension (to bone in the region i.e. sinus bones)

-meningitis

-brain abscess

-intracranial venous sinus infx

9

What is pharyngitis?

inflammation of the pharynx (acute sore throat)

10

What percentage of pharyngitis cases are caused by viruses?

50-80%

11

What viruses cause pharyngitis (top to bottom %):

-Streptococcal
-Epstein-Barr Virus
-Chlamydia pneumoniae
-Mycoplasma pneumoniae
-Neisseria gonorrheae
-Haemophilus influenzae type b
-Candidiasis
-Diphtheria


*rare: fusobacterium necrophorum (Lemierre's syndrome)

12

What rare complications exist for Streptococcal pharyngitis?

-Rheumatic fever
-Peri-tonsillar abscess

(why we treat with antibiotics...well warranted)

13

What is the gold standard Rx for Streptococcal pharyngitis?

Penicillin V

(no resistance anywhere in world)

14

What is the usual pathogen causing Hand foot and mouth (pharyngitis) in children?

Coxsackie A virus

15

What are the indications for tonsillectomy?

-6 episodes of tonsillitis/year
-recurrent peritonsillar abscess
-obstructive sleep apnea due to large tonsils
-suspected tumor (rare)

16

What is the main pathogen causing infectious mononucleosis (a form of pharyngitis)?

-EBV


*risk of spleen rupture (1% cases)

17

What are causes of pharyngitis besides mono and strep?

-Gonococcal pharyngitis (antibiotic Rx)

-oral "thrush" (candida causes this esp in immunocompromised patients)

-Lemierre's syndrome (18% mortality)

18

What is 'CROUP'?

What are the causes of croup?

Laryngeotracheitis

-Parainfluenza (1,2,3)
-influenza A,B
-Adnovirus
-RSV
-Mycoplasma (rarely)

19

What are the sx of epiglottitis?

-high fever
-sore throat
-stridor
-cyanosis
-drooling
-difficulty breathing (tripod)
-difficulty swallowing
-voice change (hoarse)

20

What resp viruses cause the majority of Acute Bronchitis?

-influenza A and B
-parainfluenza
-respiratory syncytial virus
-URI viruses (rhinovirus, coronavirus)