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Flashcards in Communicable Disease Deck (87)
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What is airborne transmission?

transmission of an infectious agent via infectious droplet nuclei that can be inhaled


What is β0 ?

y-intercept of a linear regression line


What is β1?

gradient of a linear regression line


What is a bionomial distribution?

a frequency distribution of the possible number of successful outcomes in a given number of trials in each of which there is the same probability of success


What is a cluster?

an aggregation of relatively uncommon events or diseases in space and/or time in amounts that are believed or perceived to be greater than could be expected by chance


What is a communicable disease?

an infectious disease 
transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector)


What is a contagious disease?

a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes


What is a correlation coefficient?

a number between −1 and +1 calculated so as to represent the linear dependence of two variables or sets of data.


What is correspondence analysis?

a statistical technique that provides a graphical representation of cross tabulations (which are also known as cross tabs, or contingency tables)


What is a covariate?

a variable that is possibly predictive of the outcome under study. A covariate may be of direct interest or it may be a confounding or interacting variable


What is the delta method?

a result concerning the approximate probability distribution for a function of an asymptotically normal statistical estimator from knowledge of the limiting variance of that estimator


What is direct transmission?

transmission of an infectious agent through close personal contact with an infected individual


What is an endemic?

a disease that is constantly present in a given population


What is an epidemic?

the occurrence of disease at a level greater than would normally be expected


What is factor analysis?

a process in which the values of observed data are expressed as functions of a number of possible causes in order to find which are the most important.


What is Fisher's transformation?

a way to transform the sampling distribution of Pearson's r (i.e. the correlation coefficient) so that it becomes normally distributed. ...Fisher's z' is used to find confidence intervals for both r and differences between correlation


What is an incubation period?

the time between initial infection (entry of an infectious agent into a susceptible host) and the onset of clinical disease (symptoms)


What is indirect transmission?

transmission of an infectious agent that involves a vehicle which may be inanimate, such as bedding, clothes, or utensils (collectively called 'fomites'), food or water, or the soil; or alive in which case it is called a vector


What is infection?

the entry of a microbial agent into a higher-order host an its mulitiplication within the host


What is an infective dose?

the amount of pathogen (measured in number of microorganisms) required to cause an infection in the host.


What is an infestation?

when a lower organism lives on an external surface of another (usually higher) organism (i.e. lice)


What is latent period?

the time from entry of an infectious agent into a host until the onset of infectiousness; may be longer or shorter than the incubation period. If it is shorter then infectious persons may pass on the infection before they become ill (as with influenza) and if it is longer they will become ill before they are very infecitous (i.e. SARs)


What is linear regression?

a linear approach for modeling the relationship between a scalar dependent variable y and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables) denoted X. 


What is multiple linear regression?

a statistical technique that uses several explanatory variables to predict the outcome of a response variable. The goal of multiple linear regression (MLR) is to model the relationship between the explanatory and response variables.


What is numerical taxonomy?

a classification system in biological systematics which deals with the grouping by numerical methods of taxonomic units based on their character states


What is an odds ratio?

A measure of association which compares the odds of exposure cases to the odds of exposure controls


What is an outbreak?

the occurrence of cases of disease in a commmunity or region where it would not normally be expected, or at a much greater level than expected


What is a pandemic?

disease prevalent over a whole country or the world.


What is pathogenicity of agent?

the power of an organism to produce overt illness among those infected. It is measured as the proportion of those exposed to infection that goes on to develop clinical or overt illness


What is a point-source outbreak?

an epidemic that occurs when many people are suddenly exposed to the same source of infection, leading to a clear increase in incidence of disease