Fill in the blanks for the Communication Effectively (Shannon Model)
ANS: medium/ interfering noise/ respond(see diagram)
1. Think of thoughts or ideas to convey (information formed)
2. SEND information by translating the thoughts into an appropriate message (encoding infor)
3. Using a MEDIUM, transmit the message through appropriate channels (verbal/ non verbal/ demonstration/video/ written)
1. athlete receives the message (decoding infor)
2. athlete interprets the meaning of message
3. athlete responds internally to the interpretation of message
6 types/ forms of communication
Computer/Technology /visual aids
Biggest Challenge faced in communication at coaching with parents
Challenges faced in communication at coaching with students/athletes/clients
Different learning styles
What kind of non verbal cues are there?
Tips for active listening from coach
Use Open ended questions to encourage athlete to talk
Paraphrase main points to check whether you understand the message and the athlete feelings correctly
Respond verbally with non-verbal cues to show approval
Tips to minimise misinterpretations during communication
Distinguish fact from opinion
Mention one thing at a time
No hidden agenda in message
Ensure consistency between verbal and non-verbal message
Repeat Appropriate to receiver's comprehensive ability
Ask for feedback
How to create a parent orientation programme
Introduce yourself and coaching philosophy
Provide infor on nature of sport and potential risks
Explain team rules, policies, procedures
Discuss expectations of parents and athletes
Give opportunities for parents to express concerns
Establish clear lines of communication between coach and athletes' parents
Keep parents informed
What happens during the Norming stage?
Agreement and consensus (Respect Authority)
Clear roles and responsibility
Facilitation (making task easy for other member)
but Danger of "groupthink"
Challenges faced in communication at coaching with officials
Controlling emotions when officials make mistakes
Possible outcomes of negative behaviours towards officials
Distracted officials may lose concentration of game
Increase likelihood of getting unfavourable calls
Hurt future contest if relationship is hurt
Model undesirable behaviour to athletes, damage your reputation and credibility
What factors affect the developing of groups?
- Internal factors: identity, goals, norms, roles
- External factors: social reality and social rewards
What is a sports team?
A sport team has a collective goal
What are the stages of development of a team?
What is in the forming stage?
- little agreement, but positive and polite
- unclear roles and responsibilites
- dorminant role from leader beacause members need guidance and direction
What is in the storming stage?
Members may Challenge Authority
Conflict & Resistance within group,
increased clarity of purpose
What is Norming in the Tuckman (1977) group development model?
Mutual agreements for team function and members role
Role stability & acceptance
Development of mutual respect
Focus on opponents
Group cohesion starts here
What is in Performing stage?
Clearly defined roles,
Goal= team success and respect and encouragement
in other words, members begin to seriously interact & support each other, focus on solving problems as a group, interpersonal relationships stabilise, support systems develop, real performance and team cohesion starts here
What is black sheep effect in the initial stage of group development?
Tendency of group members to judge likeable ingroup members more positively and deviant ingroup member more negatively than comparable outgroup members
What are the 2 Group Structures?
Physical structure (Composition and organisation which includes number of members, hierarchy)
Psychological structure ( Differentiation among individuals in roles and norms)
What are the two factors in Psychological structure?
Group roles (Positions)
Group Norms (Traditions)
What is a Group Role?
A set of behaviours required or expected of the person pccupying a certain position in a group
What is meant by formal group role?
Outlined specific role (position, coach, physio)
What are the two key issues within group roles?
Role clarity ( do you and your team understand their job)
Role acceptance (are players happy within their roles)
What are the two aspects within group status?
Personal attributes (age, experience, role, ability)
Situational attributes (shirt number, clothing/sponsor)
What are the 3 Group norms?
Formally (set rules such as team meetings) or
Informally (expectation by team such as socialise after a meeting),
Powerful effects on behaviour (group norms such as initations) and Deviation
What is cohesion?
A process which is shown from a group by sticking together and remaining united in its pursuit of obtaining a desired result
What are the 3 crucial features of cohesion?
Commitment to a common task
Pride in the group
What are the characteristers of cohesion?
Instrumental & effective
What is meant by informal group roles?
roles that evolved from interactions within the group members (e.g. team joker, enforcer)
What are Norms?
Levels of performance or patterns of behaviour to be adopted by the whole team
What is meant by a TEAM?
may have attraction, friendship, shared goals or shared characteristics...
higher degree of shared purpose
greater sense of identity
What is a Group?
Attraction between members,
friendship between members,
some shared goals,
some shared characterstics
Match the left column to the right column
Hackman (2002) Five Factors Model to explain about effectiveness of a team:
- Being a Real Group (Stable membership, shared task, Group Boundaries)
- Compelling Direction, e.g. SMART approach, Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time bound)
- Enabling Structure (dictated by organization, You)
- Supportive Context (group reward, information, development)
- Expert Coaching
Describe the Doran (1981) approach to create clarity for the goal setting process?
Specific in nature
Measurable in terms of outcome
Relevance to the individual
In Hackman (2002)model, what is meant by "Enabling Structure"?
the structure for group members to communicate, execute and evaluate taskm a structure must have these Considerations for
What is black sheep effect?
Group members' tendency to sustain a positive and distinctive social identity.
What are the 3 criteria that the Hackman (2002) model propose in the making of a successful group?
1. Satisfy internal and external clients
2. Finding meaning and satisfaction within the group
3. Developing capabilities to perform in the future
What is meant by Personal identity ? What is meant by Social Identity?
Personal identity is defined by individual character traits and attributes.
Social identity is defined by group affiliation and associated characteristic (Hogg & Williams, 2000)
What is meant by Social Reality?
Social Reality is made up of the beliefs of people that you interacts with. Through these beliefs, shared expectations of the group would affirm your beliefs as well as influence your decision as these expectations are widely agreed upon.
(S.R. is an uncontrollable factor for coaches)