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Dog bites what are the two types and what can you do in the future

1) Offensive aggression - involves securing or defending some vital resource or place against unwanted intrusion - euthanized as cannot control but generally learn this behaviour - dominance, aggression
2) Defensive aggression - consists of countering a perceived or actual threat asserted by a rival - can be trained out


Dog obesity how prevalent in Victoria, what is causing it and how to deal with the problem

- 30% prevalence in Victoria within veterinary surgeries
1) dog specific factors - gender, breed, age, reproductive status - minor
2) human specific factors - diet - quality (scraps without guidelines on quantity), quantity, exercise (intensity and duration, treats - worried that dog suffering if resist food and treats
1) vets information
2) obesity/weight management clinics 80% vets agreed useful when implemented
3) owner vs vet expectation - not modify diet just reduce


List 4 types treatment that can be used with animals

1) environmental modification
– e.g. enrichment
2) psychological intervention
– e.g. behaviour modification (redirecting behavour, altering perception of stimuli) and training
3) chemical intervention
– e.g. use of medicines or dietary modifications
4) physical intervention
– e.g. massage, physiotherapy or surgery - debarking dog only helps sign of issue not why dog was barking


Sex linked inheritance example and what occurs and how to get male one

• Tortoiseshell in cats
- only seen in females
- O genotype located on X chromosome
- OO Orange, Oo Tortoiseshell, oo Non-orange
• Male only one X Chromosome
- O Orange or o non-orange – no tortoiseshell
• Tortoiseshell Male?
– Invariably XXY - half male, half females


Labrador coat colour how is it determined and how to tell the difference between BB, Bb or bb in gold labrador

epistasis - gene at one locus influences gene expression at different locus
Black, yellow and chocolate
• Black gene dominant (BB, Bb) + Extension gene dominant (EE, Ee): Black Labrador
• Black gene recessive (bb) + Extension gene dominant (EE, Ee): Chocolate Labrador
• Extension gene recessive (ee): Yellow labrador - any dominance
- nose will be black BB or Bb or pink if bb


Pleiotropy what is it and an example

• When alleles at one locus effect two or more distinct phenotypical characteristics that appear to be unrelated.
– Cats that are white with blue eyes are often deaf
– White cats with a blue and a yellow-orange eye are deaf on the side with the blue eye


List the 5 vaccinations for horses, reasons for vaccination and what conditions would you not vaccinate

1) tetanus
2) strangles
3) EHV1 - equine herpes virus type 1
4) Salmonella
5) Hendra


tetanus what does it do, when problem and why vaccinate

- toxin causes stiff paralysis in response to loud noises, shock etc.
- Soil organism cut becomes contaminated or within GIT when drop in motility
1) treatment rarely successful
2) vaccination highly successful


strangles what is it, reasons for vaccination and what conditions would you not

upper respiratory tract organisms
1) highly contagious as spread via aerosol
2) if give treatment before abscess such as antibiotics unlikely to die
3) not highly effective but may decrease disease severity


Equine herpes virus 1 when problem and when likely to vaccinate

problem in large enterprises
less likely in companion animal


Salmonellosis when vaccinate and when not vaccinate why issue

nasty but outbreaks generally occur with large amounts of horses together - not typically in companion animals
- is a problem as it is a zoonosis


hendra where most prominent, what biggest risk and when vaccinate

in Queensland and northern NSW, of the outbreaks spread horses - human and humans have died - so if in those areas should probably vaccinate, fruit bats found there also found in victoria so possibility that risk is here in victoria as well


Why is parasite control important for the health management of horses

Parasites such as
1) strongyle is a main cause of colic that can lead to death, also blot clots
2) roundworm can block intestines of foals
3) tapeworms can cause colic where large intestine flips on itself
4) bot fly larvae can cause rupture of stomach at large numbers
5) can lead to general irritation for the horse with itchy skin


Worm prevention

1) Treat every 6 to 8 weeks - kill before become egg laying age - not good long term as can get resistance
2) Rotate chemical each year (-mectin, -antel, -endazole) - 3 different groups of worming, can get resistance in all groups so best way is to test which chemical works most effective each season
3) Faecal Egg Count regularly
4) Paddock control - reduce larvae on the pasture
1. - picking up the manure - every 2 to 3 days
2. Spell - not have horses on it but larvae may last 4-5months - waste of paddock, in summer highly effective
3. Harrow - spread and break up manure, in summer good idea, in winter help larvae spread
4. cross-grazing - take off horses and put on different species, only one worm that effects horses, sheep and cattle
5. rotation (young to old) - young most at risk so put on most clean and fresh paddocks


reptile locomotion and what does it effect

very similar to aquatic ancestors
- central gravity is going down and putting lots of pressure down through the limbs (crocodiles more upright stance so move faster than humans)
- As reptiles angulate (move torso side to side) puts pressure on internal organs especially the lungs and respiratory system
stretching one side and constricting the other
Moving air from one lung to another - pressure changes in lungs - less efficient


what is a water bases habitat, dry land habitat and small portion of water same as dry land habitat for lizards and snakes called

1) aquarium
2) terrarium
3) vivarium


What are the 6 things important for exotic species

1) heating
2) lighting
3) substrates
4) enrichments
5) water
6) humidity


heating, how does lizards maintain their body temperature, what are the 3 types and what good for what, heating for turtles

by moving into different spaces with different temperature, use evaporation, conduction, convection, solar radiation
1) top heat - heat lamp suspended on-top replicating the sun (beaded-dragon) generate thermal gradient
2) bottom heat - generally heats environment susceptible to drying out
3) heat rocks - allow animal to sit and warm however
may cause significant burns - BAD
turtle - also need to heat water not just air


lighting what types of lights and use for what

Full spectrum - special lightbulbs that give off lighting like that from the sun
Combined heat/light -
Black light - Ultraviolet light - often nocturnal - scorpions fluorescent under ultraviolet lights


substrates what are the types and what best

Newspaper - is cheaper
Black mulch - needs to be treated
Sand/gravel - depends on animals
Corncob - artificial gravel
Artificial - can get different coloured sand, moss, bark


Enrichments what

Hides - secretive, flower pot, biscuit tin
Branches - does it climb
Plants - turtle - Elodea or Vallisneria for shelter
Backgrounds - more for owner than animal?
Anything else - skull for snake to climb


water for lizards 4 ways provided and what else do some do

1) Water bowl - will bathe inside so need to be able to get in and out as can drown
2) Water feature - artificial pond - running water
3) Running water - can buy pumps, running water allows to increase humidity
4) Drippers - designed to increase stream of water to increase humidity


humidity what are the two ways of measuring how to increase and why important

1) Absolute humidity - total amount of water content in the air - doesn't change
2) Relative humidity - saturation of the air as a percentage
- Changes with Temperature and ventilation variation - related cannot change one without changing another
1) Spraying - if use spraying then need to do it regularly at least twice a day as the humidity increases quickly but decreases quickly
2) running water other option or drippers
humidity important for shedding in reptiles (snakes)


List the 4 vaccination programs for dogs

1) canine distemper
2) infectious canine hepatitis
3) canine parvovirus
4) bordetellosis (kennel cough)


Canine Distemper what need to vaccinate and when wouldn't you vaccinate

- most common in puppies
1) causes, diarrhoea, feer, pneumonia, vomiting
2) can cause nervous signs with long term effects
3) can lead to death within 2-12 weeks
4) only a yearly vaccination


Infectious canine hepatitis how spread, why give vaccination how often

spread via contact with body fluids
- motility 10%
- signs - fever, loss of appetite, pain in the liver region
- annual vaccination


canine parvovirus why give vaccination, how often for what types of dogs

- Hemorrhagic enteritis - blood inflammation of the intestines - most common symptoms
○ Diarrhoea, dehydration - greatest risk
- Carriers excrete in faeces - if recover - 10% become carriers
- vaccination depends on area – up to every 6 months for show dogs - travelling and coming into contact with a lot of dogs, maybe once a year for dogs just at home not in contact with others


Bordetellosis (kennel cough) what causes, when vaccination and what is the vaccination times

hacking, persistent, high pitched cough
○ transport stress
○ crowding stress
○ heavy dust / smoke exposure
○ viruses: reovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, distemper
○ cold
○ poor ventilation
from 4 weeks - annual - depending on if animal exposed to above


List the 6 parasites found in dogs

1) roundworm
2) hookworm
3) whipworm
4) tapeworm
5) heartworm
6) fleas


roundworm how spread, signs, and treatment

- ingesting worms, maternal, secondary host, zoonotic
- signs - vomiting, diarrhoea, poor growth
- treatment - every 2weeks from 2-8 weeks, monthly till 6 months leads to immunity