Flashcards in Company Officer Deck (185):
What is the slide across the seat transition?
The transition from firefighter or engineer to company officer.
As an officer, __________ is a tool that is used to ensure that the unit operates safely, effectively and efficiently.
Most of the challenges facing the new company officer will be ______________ in nature.
The new company officer must perform what actions?
-show loyalty to the organization
-support all types of education and training
-accept criticism graciously and accept praise, honors, and advancement modestly
-lead by example
-praise in public; discipline in private
Realistic company officers know the only person they can truly change is _________, and in doing so create the opportunity for greater change.
What does “start tight, then go light” mean?
-it is easier to start applying policies and procedures strictly and then ease the restrictions than the other way around.
Who is the company officer responsible to?
According to the IAFC, what are the four levels of fire officer?
-Level 1: Supervising
-Level 2: Managing
-Level 3: Administrative
-Level 4: Executive
According to the NFPA, what are the four levels of fire officer?
-Level 1: 1st line supervisor
-Level 2: Midlevel Supervisor
-Level 3: First Line Manager
-Level 4: Department Manager
the act of directing, overseeing, or controlling the activities and behavior of employees who are assigned to a particular supervisor.
the act of controlling, monitoring, or directing a project, program, situation, or organization through the use of authority, discipline, or persuasion
the act of controlling, directing, conducting, guiding, and administering through the use of personal behavioral traits or personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful completion of an organization’s goals
Using common sense, logic and reasoning to make a decision
Solving problems and making informed decisions.
Applying the four functions (planning, organizing, directing, controlling) of management to accomplish the objectives through the efforts of others.
Demonstrating self-confidence and self esteem when making decisions
Accomplishing goals and objectives with a minimum of supervision.
Gaining additional responsibility within the organization through hard work
-Desire for professional success
Applying consistently a set of morals or values to the decision making process and doing the right thing.
Knowing that the leader is secure in the position and does not feel threatened by subordinates, peers, or the political environment
Determining what must be accomplished first and maintaining focus on the outcome
-Sense of priority
Having a dream or concept of the way things should be.
Accomplishing seemingly insurmountable tasks.
Communicating ideas or getting along with others.
Sharing authority and responsibility with other members of the organization
Seeking continuously new and imaginative methods for accomplishing the mission of the organization.
-Innovation and creativity
Applying procedures, policies, rewards, and discipline evenly and fairly over time.
Always being prepared for any potential situation and having contingency plans in place to solve it.
Anticipating change and meeting it in a proactive manner (concerned with what will be more than what has been)
-living in the future
What is the behavioral theory of leadership that was developed in the 1940s? (7)
Includes several styles and theories including
What are the 3 parts of the basic leadership style?
-autocratic: leader tells subordinates what to do and how to do it with little or no input from them; appropriate for emergency operations.
-Democratic: leader includes employees in the decision making process and allows them to work with the least amount of supervision; appropriate for day to day and special operations.
-Laissez-faire: (to allow to do) leader leaves all employees to make all decisions and does not supervise them at all; appropriate for routine station or community tasks.
What is the two dimensional leadership style?
-four quadrant chart that compares the degree of job structure to the degree of employee consideration. AKA job centered and employee centered
What is the contingency leadership style?
-no single best leadership style; situation must be matched to the leadership style.
Factors that affect the success of a particular leadership style include
-how good is the relationship between the leader and subordinates
-is the task structured or unstructured?
-is the leader working from a position of strong or weak power?
What are the categories of the contemporary leadership style? (4)
What is Theory X?
More concerned with production
-average worker is inherently lazy, dislikes work, and will avoid it whenever possible
-most workers must be coerced into performing adequately by threats of punishment
-average worker prefers to be closely supervised and shuns the responsibility because of a lack of ambition
What is Theory Y?
More concerned with people
-average worker doesn’t dislike work; work can be as natural as play or rest
-workers will perform with self direction and self control not coercion
-workers will support organizational objectives if they associate them with personal goals
-the average worker seeks responsibility
What is the main disadvantage to theory x and Y?
-They both fail except when applied to specific individuals.
What is Theory Z Leadership?
-involved workers are the key to increased productivity and that each worker can perform autonomously.
What is the main problem associated with Theory Z leadership?
-resistance to change
-leader is expected to alter the situation to meet the style rather than altering the style to meet the situation.
What is Total Quality Management?
-organizational results are tied to worker happiness; requires strong leadership that is employee focused.
What theories fall under situational leadership?
What is the leadership-continuum theory?
-leader moves along a continuum from one extreme to another using the most effective and efficient leadership style based on the situation.
What are the weaknesses of the leadership continuum theory?
-leader must be good judge if a situation and people
-assumes leader has all the info
-assumes no external forces affecting the situation
-oversimplifies a complex situation by making it a 2 dimensional one
What is the Path Goal Theory?
The leader determines which leadership style to apply
based on the subordinate and the environment.
What is the results based leadership theory?
-leadership ability should not be judged by personal traits alone but by the results those traits have on the success of the organization
-effective leadership is the result of personal attributes multiplied by the results.
What is principle or principle centered leadership?
-based on writings of Stephen Covey
-focuses on the use of basic values and principles to lead an organization.
What are the leadership levels?
-based on book “Good to great” assigns 5 levels of leadership based on traits
-value driven and comparable to principle leadership
What is the level 1 leader?
-Highly capable individual who makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits.
What is the level 2 leader?
-The contributing team member contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting.
What is the level 3 leader?
-Competent manger organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.
What is the level 4 leader?
-An effective leader catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards.
What is the level 5 leader?
-An executive builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will power.
What characteristics does the level 5 leader possess that others do not?
-ambition for the organization not personal
-development of subordinates who will become successors
-personal modesty and humility
-driven to make the company succeed
-driven to ensure organizational success regardless of the amount of effort required
-success attributed to factors other than themselves but takes full responsibilities of failures.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the leadership level theory?
+ achieves long term, lasting and superb results
-requires a great deal of time from leader who doesn’t get credit at the end.
What distinguishes a model from a theory?
-a model has been proved through application while theories contain only hypothesis that still need to be (dis)proved.
For a company officer to be a ____________, it is necessary to approach leadership from a moderate or centered point on the line.
-Balanced leader (based on Basic leadership model that divides leaders into three categories)
What is the situational leadership model?
-based on 2 dimensional and situational leadership theories
-depends on matching the leaders style to the maturity of the members
What does maturity mean?
-competence, commitment, technical ability and willingness of subordinates to do the task
AKA follower readiness
-based on ability and willingness
What are the four levels of the situational leadership model?
-based on readiness (willingness vs ability)
Uses telling (low willingness and low ability),
Selling (low willingness, high ability)
Participating (high willingness, low ability)
Delegating (high in both)
What is the social change model?
-leadership model of the future
-value based model of leadership that places service at the core for social change
-purpose: make changes for the betterment of others through leadership
What are the three areas of the social change model?
-individual (consciousness of self and others, congruence, commitment)
-Group (common purpose, collaboration, controversy with civility)
What is the Alpha leadership model?
-based on transformational theory and the concept that the leader involves the followers in the process of accomplishing a goal within the limits of the system
-has 4 elements (leader, follower, system, goal)
-alpha leaders generate loyalty and commitment from subordinates through relationships
What are the core skills of the alpha leader? (3)
What is Pareto’s Principle?
AKA the 80/20 rule used by the Alpha leader
-applying 80 percent of the effort on 20 percent of the tasks that are important.
What are the 5 basic traits (concepts) of a good leader?
-plans for success
Mangers _________, Leaders ____________
Managers ask _________; leaders ask ___________
How and when; what and why
Managers focus on __________; leaders focus on _________
Managers ensure that things are done _______; leaders ensure that the ______ are done.
Right; right things
Managers __________; leaders ___________
Managers rely on __________; leaders inspire _________
Managers have a __________ perspective; leaders have a __________ perspective
Short term; long term
Managers ________ the status quo; leaders ________ the status quo
Managers have an eye on the ________; leaders have an eye on the ________
Bottom line; horizon
Managers are the classic ________; leaders are ____________
Good soldier; their own people
Managers are ________; leaders are __________
What is power and what are the 5 types?
-possession of control, authority, or influence over others
What is Command Presence?
-the complex ability to id the components of a situation, assess the need for action, determine the nature of necessary intervention, and initiate the action and also to be perceived as having the ability necessary to take this action.
- ability to instill in others the valid belief that everything will be okay simply by their presence at the emergency.
What 6 personality traits are necessary for command presence?
What 8 steps are necessary to create command presence?
1-know what the situation is
2-know what resources are available
3-know the strategy and tactics to resolve the situation
4-listen to all points of view
5-make the decision
6-take responsibility for the decision
7-implement the decision
8-evaluate the decision
What are the functions of management? (7)
Act of being a team player while working toward a common goal.
Span of control is the efficient assignment of subordinates to a supervisor. The best span consists of _________ with ____ being the optimal.
What are the 5 stages of developing a cohesive team?
The informal process of giving motivational direction, positive reinforcement, and constructive feedback to employees in order to maintain and improve their performances and ensure successful performances.
Formal process that involves activities that assist participants in identifying and resolving personal, behavioral, or career problems, that are adversely affecting performance.
Process used to prepare capable individuals for advancement within the organization through the direction of a positive role model.
Those things earned through effort or participation.
What are the 4 steps to counseling?
-describe the current performance
-describe the desired performance
-gain a commitment for change
-follow the commitment
The ability to reason and present a strong argument in favor if or against a position. It was also the ability to recognize fallacies in the arguments of others and thereby be able to refute or correct the opposing position.
Logic (or logos)
Analysis of the principles of human conduct in order to be able to determine between right and wrong.
Ethics (or ethos)
What are the four types of reasoning?
The process that arrives at a general conclusion based on a foundation of specific examples or data.
The numbers that are gathered as raw data to support the argument.
The process of reaching a specific conclusion based on a general statement or principle, usually developed in the form of a syllogism.
What is a syllogism?
A three part statement that consists of a major premise, minor premise and conclusion.
A process that is based on the relationship between 2 or more events in such a way that it is obvious one caused the other to occur.
The key to effective causal arguments is in establishing a _________, direct link between the cause and effect.
______________ is based on a comparison between 2 similar cases. It infers that what is true in the first case will also be true in the second case.
A false or fallacious reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without sufficient supporting evidence or by using irrelevant or inappropriate arguments.
What is a causal fallacy?
A faulty connection between the cause and effect.
What is a bandwagon fallacy?
Tries to make the argument that everyone is doing something or believes something so that makes it the correct point of view or activity.
What is a straw man fallacy?
Makes a weak, easily refuted statement to take attention away from the main point, thus creating a distraction from the main point.
What is a hasty generalization?
Makes an argument or conclusion that is based in insufficient or nonexistent evidence; can also result in stereotyping.
What is a red herring?
Occurs when someone uses irrelevant facts to distract the listener from the main issue; used by politicians.
What is a non sequitur?
Concludes something that doesn’t follow the main premise of the argument.
What is a slippery slope?
Consists of a series of worsening consequences that are assumed will result from the initial decision or action.
Ethics is a _________ trait.
What is the 3 step check for ethics?
Is it legal?
-Is it fair for al concerned?
-How will it make me feel about myself?
__________ is the glue that holds a civilization together.
Ethics (moral philosophy)
What are the four main reasons for lying or unethical conduct?
What are the 7 steps when dealing with an ethical dilemma?
-Recognize and define the situation.
-Obtain all facts surrounding the issue.
-List all possible options necessary to respond to the situation.
-Compare each option to established criteria
-Select the best option that meets the criteria
-Double check the decision
-Take action and implement the decision
Fire officers lead primarily by example and the most important example they can provide to their organization and community is _____________ and action.
Ethical Decision making
What axiom is best for guiding people ethically.
Do not impose on others what you yourself do not want.
What are the four basic elements that the company officer must consider in assessing a situation or problem that requires a decision?
-Is the decision within the authority of the company officer?
-Is there sufficient info available about the situation or problem to make an informed decision?
-How will the decision affect the unit or organization?
-Is the problem worth the effort?
What is the difference between generic and exceptional decisions?
Generic or programmed decisions are routine or recurring and usually made based on existing standards. IE Implementing ICS. Decisions usually involve certainty (decisions have known results and require specific resources).
Exceptional or nonprogrammed decisions are unique or significant situation (nonrecurrying). IE emergency expenditure. Usually involve risk and uncertainty.
What is the rational or classical model for decision making?
-The leader gather info and makes the decision based on the best possible alternative to the situation; usually applied to the exceptional/nonprogrammed decisions that have the potential for high risk or uncertain outcomes.
What is the bounded rationality model?
Allows the leader to select the decision that will satisfy the minimal requirements of the situation; usually applied to generic (programmed) decisions that have certain outcomes.
The use of a group in the decision-making process is basic to the ____________ style that is part of democratic management.
Fear, ego or self esteem, indecisiveness, distrust, antagonism, jealousy, and unethical motives are examples of ____________ barriers to decision making.
Lack of data, accurate analysis, resources, management/membership support, commitment, and capacity are examples of ____________ barriers to decision making.
What is the Abilene Paradox?
-a popular theory developed by Jerry Harvey that explains why members of a group may go along with a decision even when they believe it to be a bad one rather than dissent against the group. It theorizes that because the individual members of the group do not want to appear out of step or afraid that their opinion is flawed, they will not voice their concern or opposition to the group’s decision.
-AKA the inability to manage agreement
What are the symptoms of the Abilene Paradox?
-group members agree individually in private about the problem facing the organization.
-they also agree individually in private about the actions that are required to solve the problem.
-they fail to accurately communicate their private desires and beliefs to one another.
-because of failure to communicate, the group makes decisions that are counterproductive and may be unethical.
-process then frustrates members of the group.
-cycle continues until fixed with accurate communication.
What is the four way ethical decision making test used by Rotary International?
-Is it the truth?
-Is it fair to all concerned?
-Will it build goodwill and better relationships?
-Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
What is the 4 way ethical decision making test for fire and emergency services?
-Decision based in well analyzed facts?
-Based on ethical values of the organization and the community?
-decision build strong internal and external relationships and generate the appropriate image?
-will the decision benefit everyone affected by it?
Learned, relatively enduring, and emotionally charged moral concepts that help people in making decisions and planning actions.
Rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.
Body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political/judicial authority.
Law of the land
The ________ branch creates the laws and the ______ branch implements, administers and enforces them. The _______ branch interprets them.
_________ are a result of legislative action.
Statutes or ordinances.
Laws that were developed by judicial decisions.
Common or case law.
___________ laws are created by departments that are empowered to create and enforce rules and regulations to implement the legislation for which they are responsible.
____________ deals with actual issues by establishing principles, defining duties and obligations, and creating and defining the limitations of rights within a society.
_________ define the judiciary rules or mechanisms used to enforce substantive laws.
_________ bases laws on English common law.
_________ pertains to laws enacted by legislative bodies.
Pertains to laws created by government agencies and used to enforce and implement statutory law.
Protects society as a whole from wrongful actions. Deals with the rights and responsibilities of individuals toward society.
Defines relationships between individuals or groups and helps to resolve disputes between parties. Deals primarily with private rights and responsibilities.
A legal obligation or responsibility.
Party who initiates a lawsuit or action before a court
-Plaintiff of claimant or complainant
Any person or institution against who an action is brought in a criminal or civil court of law.
Civil wrong or breach of duty to another person
Effective or primary cause of loss or damage or an unbroken chain o events between the occurrence and resulting damage.
Failure to exercise the same care that a reasonable, prudent and careful person would under the same or similar circumstances.
Commission of an unlawful act by a public official.
Failure to act when under an obligation to do so
Level of care a reasonable person would use under similar circumstances.
Standard of care
Doctrine that the federal, state/provincial, or local government is immune to lawsuit unless it gives consent.
Situation that occurs when one person is held responsible for the actions or inactions of another individual; also applies to the liability incurred by an organization for the actions or inactions of an employee.
__________ damages are intended to punish the offender.
What 4 elements must exist for a valid tort action?
-defendant must owe a legal duty to the plaintiff.
-there must be a breach of duty
-breach of duty must be a proximate cause of the accident or injury that resulted.
-plaintiff must have suffered damages as a result
What are the 2 ways in which one can be judged negligent?
What is the firemans rule?
Doctrine that holds that firefighters know the risks involved and are trained deal with those risks; therefore they are not entitled to redress from the property owner for injury suffered as a result of performing their duties. The exception to this doctrine is if the injury was the result of a crime such as arson or the property owner’s gross negligence or willful and wanton disregard for the firefighters safety.
U.S. federal administrative laws are contained in the _________.
Code of Federal Regulations
OSHA regulations for which company officers are responsible are contained in __________ of the CFR.
What is Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964?
It eliminated the discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex (later age). (protected classes)
Act created EEOC for enforcement.
__________ requires that the standards for recruitment, selection, and promotion be essential for the work and be based on work related criteria.
Treating an applicant or employee differently than those of another class.
Disparate or differential treatment
What are the 4 primary types of employment discrimination?
The type of discrimination occurs when an employer uses a test or other screening device that initially is not intended to discriminate but adversely affects members of one of the protected classes more than other applicants or employees.
Any standard or device that adversely affects a greater percentage of those in a protected class than it does other applicants or employees must be proven by the employer to be __________.
What are the 2 types of sexual harassment?
-Quid Pro quo: consists of overt, unwanted, or unwelcome sexual behavior or advances toward a worker by someone who has the power to reward or punish the worker.
-Hostile work environment: occurs when speech or conduct is severe or pervasisve enough to create a hostile or abusive work environment. Defined by the court as whether a reasonable person, in the same or similar circumstances, would be offended by the conduct.
Employers are required to do what is ___________ to accommodate their employees’ differences.
Under the ________ and the FMLA of 1993, female firefighters must be given the same pregnancy leave and maternity leave benefits as female workers in other professions.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
According to the _______, employees must be paid time and ½ for overtime.
Procedures and criteria recognized as acceptable practices by peer professional, credentialing, or accrediting organizations.
What is ANSI?
American National Standards Institute accredites member organizations that develop consensus standards.
What is UL?
Underwriters Laboratories is a product safety testing and certification organization.
What the three most common forms of communication?
The communication that takes place between 2 people who have established a relationship, and it occurs on a daily basis in the lives of all people who live in groups.
What are the 6 elements of interpersonal communication?
-medium or channel
-feedback to sender
For a conversation to work properly, both the sender and the receiver must agree on its purpose. What are the 5 general purposes?
Words (the verbal component of the communication process) only provide the receiver with ______ percent of the message. Nonverbal actions provide the remaining ______ percent. The nonverbal elements are _____ percent of the message, while the vocal tones and inflections are _____ percent.
What are the nonverbal clues?
-kinesics: body motion and position
-paralanguage or vocalics: vowel sounds or tones used to create the verbal message
-self-presentation: clothing, touch, use of time, and control of the speaker’s environment
Gestures that take the place of verbal communications.
Gestures that are used to emphasize or assist in the understanding of the verbal message.
Gestures that go with a verbal expression of feelings.
Gestures that are used to control the flow of the verbal conversation.
Gestures that are used to relieve stress in a speaker.
The accumulation of all the other nonverbal elements into one image of self confidence and authority.
What are the 2 cultural views of time?
Monochronic: time is linear and punctuality is important.
Polychronic: time is cyclical and punctuality is not important
________ is basically paying attention to the message. ________ consists of decoding the message and assigning meaning to it.