Comparative Anatomy II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Comparative Anatomy II Deck (295):
1

Which lever system has the effort between the load and fulcrum?

A. First class lever
B. Third class lever
C. Second class lever
D. Fourth class lever

B. Third class lever

2

You are a famous fossil hunter working in the deserts of Egypt at a site where early modern humans are thought to have lived. While digging at the site you come across what appears to be a fragment of bone from a human spinal column. From what you can tell, this is a vertebral segment that has a rather large vertebral body, short spinous process, and short laterally facing transverse processes. You most likely found a...

A. Cervical vertebra
B. Thoracic vertebra
C. Lumbar vertebra
D. Sacral fragment

C. Lumbar vertebra

3

Whn the medial pterygoid (both heads) works bilaterally, what action is seen?

A. Elevation and protraction of mandible
B. Elevation and retraction of mandible
C. Depression and protraction of mandible
D. Depression and retraction of mandible

A. Elevation and protraction of mandible

4

Which is the best description of humerus of living humans, compared to non-human apes?

A. In humans, the humerus exhibits a higher degree of humeral torsion with very similar distal humeral features, compared to non-human apes
B. In humans, the humerus exhibits a lesser degree of humeral torsion, with very similar distal humeral features, compared to non-human apes
C. In humans, the humerus exhibits a higher degree of humeral torsion with very different distal humeral features, compared to non-human apes
D. In humans, the humerus exhibits a lesser degree of humeral torsion with very different distal humeral features, compared to non-human apes

A. In humans, the humerus exhibits a higher degree of humeral torsion with very similar distal humeral features, compared to non-human apes

5

Which of the following named arteries contribues to blood supply in the hand?

A. Subclavian artery
B. Axillary artery
C. Brachial artery
D. Radial artery

D. Radial artery

6

Which of the following groups of features would best be attributed to a suspensory/climbing primate?

A. Long lumbar region, narrow thorax, stable shoulder joint, long digits
B. Long lumbar region, narrow thorax, stable shoulder joint, short digits
C. Short lumbar region, broad thorax, mobile shoulder joint, long digits
D. Short lumbar region, broad thorax, mobile shoulder joint, short digits

C. Short lumbar region, broad thorax, mobile shoulder joint, long digits

7

_____________ is a standardized way of positioning the skull so that relationships among structures can be measured in a way that allows direct comparisons among different taxa

Frankfurt horizontal

8

___________ is a term that is used to describe living humans and their direct ancestors

Hominins

9

____________ refers to a novel characteristic that is unique to a particular species and all of its descendants and can be used as a defining character for a species or group

Apomorphy

10

______________ refers to the ancestral state; an example would be humans having a spine

Plesiomorphy

11

______________ refers to a distinctive feature or derived trait that is unique to a particular taxon. AKA it is not shared among descendants, only your species has it

Autapomorphy

12

_____________ is a shared primitive characteristic

Symplesiomorphy

13

_____________ is a shared derived characteristic that is assumed to be present in the most recent common ancestor

Synapomorphy

14

____________ structures are shared characteristics of organisms that were inherited from a common ancestor

Homologous

15

____________ structures are shared characteristics that arise because of similar selective pressures, through the process of parallel or convergent evolution. These are characteristics that are similar in organisms that have separate evolutionary lineages

Analogous

16

________________ refers to an evolutionary trend in which selection has exerted similar pressures on two closely related organisms

Parallelism

17

_____________ refers to an evolutionary trend where selection has exerted similar pressure on two distantly related organisms

Convergence

18

A ____________ is a character shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor. A good example is the evolution of the eye which has originated independently in many different species.

Homoplasy

19

____________ evolution is the origin of a homoplasy

Convergent

20

Generally, a more ___________ positioned foramen magnum is associated with orthograde postures and bipedal behaviors

Anterior

21

Bipedality in humans is related to a relatively ______ lumbar region and a ________ shaped thorax

Short
Barrel

22

Bipedality in humans is related to a __________ sacral angle and a pronounced _________ curvature

Increased
Spinal (especially lumbar)

23

Bipedality in humans is related to a _________ coccyx and progressively ________ vertebral bodies that allow weight transmission to lower limb through a columnar structure

Reduced
Larger

24

Given that Australopithecines had skulls attaching more inferiorly and an S-shaped spine with small, lighter vertebrae that were not likely weight bearing, How would you describe their most likely locomotive behavior?

Likely facultative bipeds, mostly arboreal

25

Given that Homo ergaster/erectus had the following characteristics:

Barrel shaped rib cage, lumbar lordosis, 5 lumbar vertebrae, and small thoracic vertebrae/vertebral foramina

How would you characterize their most likely locomotive behavior?

Likely habitual, terrestrial bipeds

26

What are the 4 osteological parts of the human thorax?

Clavicles
Sternum
Ribs
Scapula

27

What are the 3 parts of the sternum from superior to inferior?

Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid

28

Human ribs are only associated with the _______ region. They articulate with the ________ and vertebrae.

Thoracic
Sternum

29

Ribs 1, 2, 11, & 12 are considered ___________

Atypical

30

Ribs 1-7 are considered _______ ribs

True (vertebrocostal)

31

Ribs 8-10 are considered _______ ribs

False (vertebrochondral)

32

Ribs 11 and 12 are considered _________ ribs

Floating

33

What does the term hominoid refer to?

Apes and humans

34

What does the term hominin refer to?

Humans and their direct ancestors

35

Compare the thorax and lumbar region of an arboreal quadruped vs. suspensory climber

Arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds have narrow thorax and long lumbar region

36

Describe general characteristics of cervical vertebrae in terms of size, body shape, foramen size, and characteristics of spinous processes

Smaller, rectangular bodies
Large vertebral foramen
Spinous processes are forked

37

Describe characteristics of thoracic vertebrae

Facets on transverse processes for ribs
Demi-facets on ribs articulate between the vertebrae

38

Describe characteristics of lumbar vertebrae

Large bodies (support more weight)
Shorter spinous processes
Shorter transverse processes

39

Describe features of the atlas

Atlas = C1
Superior articular facet articulates with occipital condyles

40

What is the identifying feature of the axis?

Axis = C2
Has the dens, aka odontoid process

41

Which vertebrae appear concave from posterior to anterior?

Cervical and lumbar

42

Which vertebrae appear convex from posterior to anterior?

Thoracic

43

Extrinsic muscles of the back are considered ______ and are innervated by the ________ rami of spinal nerves

Hypaxial
Ventral

44

Intrinsic muscles of the back are considered _______ and are innervated by the _____ rami of spinal nerves

Epaxial
Dorsal

45

What are extrinsic muscles of the back generally used for?

Movement of the upper limbs and pectoral girdle

46

What are intrinsic muscles of the back generally used for?

Mainly postural muscles that support and move the vertebral column and head

47

The erector spinae group and transversospinalis group are considered to be a part of which type of musculature in the back?

Intrinsic (epaxial)

48

The muscles of the human pectoral region are innervated by the ______ rami of spinal nerves via branches of the _________ _________

Ventral
Brachial plexus

49

Which cervical vertebrae does not have a body?

Atlas (C1)

50

How does human thoracic shape compare to other primates?

Overall shape
Position of scapulae
Rib shape
**Posterior invagination**

51

What are the 5 primary hypaxial/extrinsic muscles of the back?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi

Levator scapulae
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor

Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior

52

What is the primary function of the extrinsic back muscles: serratus posterior superior and inferior?

Accessory breathing muscles

53

What are the erector spinae muscles from most lateral to closest to the spine?

Iliocostalis
Longissimius dorsi
Spinalis

54

Are the erector spinae muscles intrinsic or extrinsic?

Intrinsic (epaxial)

55

What are the 3 muscles of the transversospinalis group of the intrinsic (epaxial) muscles of the back?

Rotatores
Multifidus
Semispinalis

56

What two muscles overlay the musculature of the posterior neck?

Splenius
Semispinalis capitis

57

What are the 4 primary muscles of the posterior neck?

Rectus capitis posterior major
Rectus capitis posterior minor
Obliquus capitis superior
Obliquus capitis inferior


[these are mainly postural and aid in extension+rotation at atlantoaxial joint]

58

All muscles of the upper limbs are innervated by the brachial plexus except trapezius. The trapezius muscles is innervated by what nerve?

The spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)


[this nerve also innervates the sternocleidomastoid m.

59

Name the 4 primary muscles of the abdominal wall from more anterior/superficial to more posterior/deeper?

External obliques
Internal obliques
Rectus abdominus
Transversus abdominus

60

What two muscles converge to make up the iliopsoas muscle?

Iliacus
Psoas major

61

What are the 4 primary posterior muscles of the abdominal wall?

Iliacus, psoas major, psoas minor, quadratus lumborum

62

Iliacus, psoas major (iliopsoas), and psoas minor function primarily as _______ of the trunk and/or hip

Flexors

63

The pair of muscles known as quadratus lumborum extends the lumbar vertebral region and also contributes to lateral ______

Flexion

64

What bones make up the pectoral girdle?

ONLY the clavicle and scapula

65

Your stylopodium is your _______

Humerus

66

Your zyogpodium refers to your ______

Ulna and radius

67

Your autopodium refers to your ______

Hand

68

The tip of your scapular spine is known as the ____________

Acromion

69

The glenoid of apes and humans is ___________ to accommodate more shoulder mobility

Rounder

70

In quadrupedal monkeys, the glenoid is _________ in shape

Pririform (pear-like)

71

Quadrupeds have a _________ scapula cranially-caudally, but __________ from the vertebral border to axillary border to facilitate movement during quadrupedal locomotion

Shorter
Broader

72

Climbers and suspensory forms have ________ scapulae with a more __________ oriented glenoid to allow greater mobility and rotational movement

Long
Cranially

73

In particular, lengthening the infraspinous portion of the ___________ provides greater attachment for muscles that superiorly rotate the glenoid, raising arm overhead

Scapula

74

Humeral torsion is present early in ontogeny and affects the placement of the bicipital groove on the humerus, which accommodates the tendon of biceps brachii. What is thought to be the purpose of increased humeral torsion in humans?

Related to tool use, which requires laterally oriented shoulders and anteriorly oriented elbows

75

What type of locomotive behavior is related to limited extension due to longer olecranon process?

Quadrupedalism

76

What type of locomotive behavior is related to increased extension due to shorter olecranon process?

Climbing/suspensory

77

Stronger flexion at the elbow joint is accommodated by a higher ___________ ___________ which is the attachment point for the brachialis m., the main elbow flexor, in climbers and suspensory forms

Coronoid process

78

Describe the olecranon fossa of apes as it relates to preventing hyperextension during weight bearing knuckle walking

Deep olecranon fossa with a strongly developed lateral trochlear ridge

79

How many bones in the wrist?

8

80

How many bones in the hand?

5

81

How many bones in the fingers?

14 bones

[each digit has 3 segments except thumb which has 2]

82

African ape knuckle walking features include:

Limited degree of wrist ______________
Limited metacarpophalangeal joint ____________
Deeply _________ distal radial surface
___________ expansion of metacarpal heads
Relatively _______ proximal phalangeal segments

Dorsiflexion (extension)
Dorsiflexion
Concave
Dorsal
Short

83

Orangutans (pongo) have the following adaptations to climbing:

_______, very curved phalangeal segments
Metacarpals II and V show a ________ degree of curvature than African apes
_______ bony cortex of all metacarpals
_________ length of the 4th digit relative to other digits

Long
Greater
Thicker
Increased

84

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what serves as the upward rotator of the scapula?

Serratus anterior

85

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what serves as the downward rotator of the scapula?

Pectoralis minor

86

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve as depressors of the clavicle?

Subclavius
Pectoralis minor

87

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve to protract the scapula?

Serratus anterior
Pectoralis minor

88

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles flex the humerus?

Deltoid
Pectoralis major

89

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what muscle serves to abduct the humerus?

Deltoid

90

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what muscle serves to adduct the humerus?

Pectoralis minor

91

Of the anterior pectoral girdle muscles, what muscle serves in inward (medial) rotation?

Subscapularis

92

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what muscle serves as an upward rotator of the scapula?

Trapezius

93

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 3 muscles serve as downward rotators of the scapula?

Levator scapulae
Rhomboids
Latissimus dorsi

94

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve to retract the scapula?

Rhomboids
Trapezius

95

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what muscle elevates the scapula?

Levator scapulae

96

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 3 muscles act as extensors of the humerus?

Deltoid
Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi

97

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve as abductors of the humerus?

Deltoid
Supraspinatus

98

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 3 muscles serve as adductors of the humerus?

Deltoid
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major

99

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve in external (lateral) rotation?

Infraspinatus
Teres minor

100

In terms of posterior pectoral girdle muscles, what 2 muscles serve in inward (medial) rotation?

Latissimus dorsi
Teres major

101

What 4 muscles make up the rotator cuff?

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

[Remember SITS!]

102

What 3 muscles make up the anterior (flexor) compartment of the arm?

Biceps brachii (long and short heads)
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis

103

What 2 muscles make up the posterior (extensor) compartment of the arm?

Triceps brachii (long, lateral, and medial heads)
Anconeus

104

What are the 4 superficial muscles of the anterior forearm?

Pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris

105

What is the intermediate muscle of the anterior forearm?

Flexor digitorum superficialis

106

What are the 3 deep muscles of the anterior forearm?

Flexor digitorum profundus
Flexor pollicis longus
Pronator quadratus

107

What are the 3 muscles that make up the superficial lateral compartment of the posterior forearm?

Brachioradialis
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis

108

What 3 muscles make up the superficial layer of the posterior forearm?

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extensor digitorum
Extensor digiti minimi

109

What 5 muscles make up the deep layer of the posterior forearm?

Supinator
Abductor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor indicis

110

What muscle group of the hand attaches to tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus?

Lumbricles

111

What muscle group of the hand adducts the fingers?

Palmar interosseous muscles

112

What muscle group of the hand abducts the fingers?

Dorsal interosseus muscles

113

Is the long hand musculature (tendons from forearm) more developed and stronger in apes or humans?

Apes

114

Is the short hand musculature (intrinsic hand muscles) more developed in apes or humans?

Humans

115

What important thumb muscle is absent as its own muscle in African apes and orangutans?

Flexor pollicis longus

116

What are the two major blood supplies to the posterior shoulder?

Subclavian arteries
Axillary arteries

117

The pectoral region is supplied by branches of the ________ artery

Axillary

118

The arm is supplied by the ______ artery and its branches

Brachial

119

The forearm is supplied by what two arteries?

Radial and ulnar

120

What are the 2 main blood supplies to the hand?

Radial and ulnar arteries

121

Which layer of the skin contains large vessels and nerves?

A. Epidermis
B. Dermis
C. Hypodermis
D. Dermal papillae

C. Hypodermis

122

What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

Papillary layer (pain, heat, cold, pain receptors)
Reticular layer (fat+lymph, oil+sweat glands, hair)

123

The thick epidermis is only found on palms and soles. All 5 epidermal strata occur in thick skin. Which epidermal strata is missing in thin epidermis?

Stratum lucidum

124

____________ are sebaceous glands associated with hair follicles and secrete oil that adds to the skin's protective barrier

Holocrine

125

_______________ are a type of sweat gland that is made up of cellular filtrate which promotes bacterial growth. These are found diffusely on horses but only in axillary and pubic regions in humans

Apocrine

126

___________ are another type of sweat gland that produces watery perspiration through filtration of plasma. It is a very dilute solution containing waste products like urea

Eccrine

127

What type of sweat gland is considered metabolically more expensive but better at removing body heat and is less wasteful?

Eccrine

Apocrine are considered wasteful bc losing cellular filtrate

128

What is another name for the dermal ridges that act as friction pads? Aka fingerprints

Dermatoglyphs

129

A __________ refers to a hoof or nail

Ungula

130

A ________ refers to a sharp curved claw

Falcula

131

A __________ refers to a claw-like nail found in some primates

Tegula

132

The arrector pili muscle is responsible for raising the hair on the body and is under control of what nervous system?

Sympathetic

133

What permits humans to efficiently sustain metabolically expensive, potentially heat-producing behaviors such as long-distance running for relatively long periods of time?

The ability to efficiently cool the body through evaporation (sweating) over large areas of the body

134

What are the trade offs to more efficient evaporative cooling in humans?

Fluid lost must be replenished

Must consume more energy and maintain thicker layer of fat to make up for lack of insulation d/t hair loss

135

Darker skin has a form of melanin called ______ while lighter skin has a form of melanin called _______

Eumelanin
Pheomelanin

136

What is the vitamin D hypothesis as it relates to human skin pigmentation?

Humans migrating from lower latitudes to high latitudes will have shortage of vitamin D3 unless melanin production is reduced

137

What is the solar protection hypothesis as it relates to human skin pigmentation?

Habitat and climate variable appear to account for 80% of observed variation in skin color [K wright thinks this is best supported]

138

What are 6 other hypotheses regarding human skin pigmentation?

Camoflauge
Protection of nutrients
Protection against cold
Protection against tropical disease
Thermoregulation
Sexual selection

139

What are the 4 cell types associated with epidermis?

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Langerhans cells
Merkel cells

140

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors include merkel disks, meissner's corpuscles, pascinian corpuscles, ruffinis corpuscles, end-bulbs of krause, root hair plexus, and nociceptors. What is the specific function of each of these?

Merkel disks = fine touch + pressure
Meissners = light tough (most sensitive)
Pascinian = vibration
Ruffini = heat
End-bulbs = touch+pressure
Root hair plexus = touch
Nociceptor = pain

141

What are some hypotheses explaining hair reduction in humans?

Body size
Aquatic habitat
Parasites
Sexual attraction
Clothing+culture

142

What is the sequence of blood as it moves through the primitive heart?

Sinus venosus
Atrium
Ventricle
Conus arteriosus

143

The following characteristics refer to what group:

Reduced number of aortic arches
Pulmonary circulation

Tetrapods

144

The following characteristics refer to what group:

Pulmonary and systemic circuit chambers completely isolated from each other

Aortic arch on left

Involvement in regulation of body temp

Mammals

145

The following characteristics refer to what group:

Blood cells contain hemoglobin
Closed circ. System
Heart compartmentalized
Aorta positioned in front of spinal column

Vertebrates

146

The following characteristics refer to what group:

Increased efficiency in keeping the brain cool

Humans

147

What is the difference between an open vs. closed circulatory system?

In an open system, blood is pumped into body cavities where tissues are bathed in blood (hemolymph)

In a closed system, blood is inside vessels at all times and does not fill body cavities

148

What valves in the heart function most similarly to veins?

Semilunar valves because the force of blood from ventricles forces the valves open and a slight backflow pushes them closed

149

What valves of the heart are tricuspid?

Right AV valve
Semilunar valves

150

What valve(s) of the heart are bicuspid?

Left AV valve (mitral valve)

151

The circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery are branches of what artery?

Left coronary artery (aka left anterior descending a.)

152

The right coronary artery branches into which 2 arteries?

Posterior interventricular a.
Right marginal a.

153

The ductus arteriosus is a fetal structure that later becomes what?

Ligamentum arteriosum

154

The foramen ovale is a fetal structure that eventually becomes what?

Fossa ovalis

155

The ductus venosus is a fetal structure that later becomes what?

Ligamentum venosum

156

The umbilical vein is a fetal structure that eventually becomes what?

Ligamentum teres

157

The umbilical arteries are fetal structures that later become what?

Medial umbilical ligaments

158

Blood supply to the head and neck originates from the aortic arch. The right side comes from the ______________ ___________ and the left side comes from the __________ and ___________

Brachiocephalic trunk (R. Common carotid and R. Subclavian)

Left common carotid; left subclavian

159

Internal arterial supply to the brain is supplied by what 2 arteries?

Vertebral arteries
Internal carotid arteries

160

External arterial supply to the head is from what artery?

External carotids

161

External arterial supply to the neck is due to what 2 arteries?

External carotid arteries
Thyrocervical trunks (from subclavians)

162

The following arteries are branches of what major artery?

Superficial temporal a.
Posterior auricular a.
Occipital a.
Maxillary a.
Facial a.
Ascending pharyngeal a.
Lingual a.
Suprahyoid a.
Superior laryngeal a.
Superior thyroid a.

External carotid artery

163

What provides venous drainage for the brain?

Dural sinuses to internal jugular veins

164

What 3 veins provide venous drainage of the head?

Internal jugular veins
External jugular veins
Vertebral veins

165

What 2 veins provide venous drainage of the neck?

Internal jugular
External jugular

166

The circle of willis is an important anastomosis of arteries around the sella turcica (sphenoid bone). What is the primary purpose of the sella turcica?

Equalizes blood pressure in brain and can provide collateral channels if a vessel becomes blocked

167

What aspect of the circle of willis is absent in macaques?

Anterior communicating artery

168

What is the bovine pattern of the aortic arch?

The brachiocephalic trunk gives rise to the L. Common carotid, R. Common carotid, and R. Subclavian arteries

The normal human arch has the R. Carotid and R. Subclavian coming off the brachiocephalic trunk, but the L. Carotid branches directly off the aortic arch itself

The true bovine arch has everything coming off the brachiocephalic trunk, including the left subclavian

169

What are the 3 main digestive system branches of the circulatory system?

Celiac trunk (foregut)
Superior mesenteric (midgut)
Inferior mesenteric (hindgut)

170

What are the 3 branches of the celiac trunk?

Common hepatic a.
Left gastric a.
Splenic a.


These are all foregut derivatives

171

What are the 4 main components of the hepatic portal system?

Hepatic portal vein
Splenic vein
Superior mesenteric vein
Inferior mesenteric vein

172

Name some of the many characteristics of the human reproductive system that make us distinct from other mammals and primates

No baculum
Enlarged external genitalia
Heavy menstrual flow
Menopause
Hemochoral placenta
Constricted birth canal d/t bipedalism
Fetal head fits tightly thru F pelvis
Fetus has characteristic passage thru
Longer labor
Assistance to mother required
Relatively altricial infants
High carb maternal milk
Permanent enlargement of F breasts

173

Humans, rodents, and haplorhines have what type of placenta?

Hemochorial

174

Dogs and cats have what type of placenta?

Endotheliochorial

175

Cows, pigs, horses, and strepsirhines have what type of placenta?

Epitheliochorial

176

Define reproductive success

Having as many offspring as possible survive into adulthood

177

What subclass of mammals utilizes the following reproductive strategy:

Laying eggs

Prototherians

178

What subclass of mammals utilizes the following reproductive strategy:

Retaining egg in uterus for entire ovulatory cycle, fetus flushed out with endometrial lining, underdeveloped fetus emerges from birth canal and stays in pouch

Metatherian

179

What subclass of mammals utilizes the following reproductive strategy:

Endometrium is retained, placenta supplies fetus, extended gestation, more developed fetus at birth

Eutherian

180

What type of pelvis has a round pelvic inlet, shallow pelvic cavity with short ischial spines, and is thought to be the most suitable for childbirth?

A. Platypelloid
B. Gynecoid
C. Android
D. Anthropoid

B. Gynecoid

181

What type of pelvis has a narrow inlet from front to back, with a very shallow pelvic cavity, a shape which makes it difficult for the infant's head to engage the birth canal?

A. Platypelloid
B. Gynecoid
C. Android
D. Anthropoid

A. Platypelloid

182

What type of pelvis has triangular or heart-shaped inlet and is narrow anteriorly, has prominent ischial spines, and tends to be present in taller individuals. This pelvis can make childbirth more difficult.

A. Platypelloid
B. Gynecoid
C. Android
D. Anthropoid

C. Android

183

What type of pelvis has an oval shaped inlet that is large from front to back, and transversely narrow, with a larger outlet but relatively small inlet overall. The infant head tends to engage normally, but it is associated with a slower process.

A. Platypelloid
B. Gynecoid
C. Android
D. Anthropoid

D. Anthropoid

184

Known pelvic material for Australopithecus afarensis suggests a birth canal that is wide from side to side but narrow from front to back, probably due to locomotor requirements than obstetric constraints. Bipedalism requires having an SI joint as close to the _____________ as possible. A wider pelvis supplies better support for hip abductors (small gluteal muscles). Australopiths likely had small brains and small heads. Homo erectus had a relatively larger brain than A. Afarensis and further adaptations to obligate bipedalism. Similar pelvic dimensions with a medium sized head, compared to modern humans would have made for a relatively easy journey through the birth canal

Acetabulum

185

_______ _______ is defined as the sequence of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral changes and events that an organism experiences over the course of its lifetime, from its conception to its death

Life history

186

What are the 6 primary stages of mammalian life history?

1. Fetal
2. Infancy
3. Juvenile
4. Subadult
5. Adult
6. Post-reproductive (females)

187

Minimal investment in individual growth and a high reproductive output is indicative of what type of strategist?

R strategist

188

Maximum investment in individual growth and a low reproductive output is characteristic of what type of strategist?

K strategist

189

An increase in animal body size and complexity are indicators of a trend toward what type of strategist?

K

190

Anatomically, CN I is made up of numerous olfactory axons that are collectively called the ______ _________

Fila olfactoria

191

Olfactory info is carried from the MOB to what part of the brain?

Paleocortex - phylogenetically oldest portion

192

All vertebrates except aquatic mammals have an MOB. An AOB is present in most vertebrates but not OWM or humans. What is the AOB associated with?

The VNO

193

The MOE/MOB senses volatile, airborne stimuli. What is the function of the VNO/AOB?

Receives nonvolatile aromatic stimuli called pheromones

194

The ____________ is the moist, naked surface surrounding the nasal openings/nostrisl of most mammals; it is sensitive to touch but lacks olfactory receptors

Rhinarium

Note that it also probably assists in delivering pheromones to VNO

195

Which primates are considered wet-nosed?

Strepsirrhines

196

Which primates are considered dry-nosed?

Haplorrhines (including platyrrhines and catarrhines)

197

Which primates are considered dry-nosed and have downward facing nostrils?

Catarrhines

198

Which primates are considered dry-nosed and have side-facing nostrils?

Platyrrhines

199

What is the trade-off hypothesis as it relates to special senses?

Idea that specialization of one sensory function will impair another. Increased reliance on vision --> decreased reliance on olfaction

200

Which group had a spiracle (primitive opening to inner ear)

Early tetrapods

201

Early therapsids were the first to have the articular, quadrate, and stapes involved in sound conduction. What did each of these eventually become in terms of inner ear bones?

Articular --> malleus
Quadrate --> incus
Stapes remains

202

The original jaw joint was made up of the quadrate-articular, which later complexed with what would eventually become the sole jaw joint. What bones made up this addition?

Dentary-squamosal

203

Pharyngeal arch 1 gave rise to which bone(s) of the inner ear?

Malleus and incus

204

Pharyngeal arch 2 gave rise to which bone(s) of the inner ear?

Stapes

205

What was the early Jurassic mammal that shows the beginnings of modern therian mammal inner ear anatomy?

Dryloestes

206

What area of the brain is specialized for speech recognition and comprehension?

Wernicke's

207

The incudomalleolar joint is between which two bones of the middle ear?

Incus and malleus

208

The incudostapedial joint is located between what two bones of the middle ear?

Incus and stapes

209

The tensor tympani muscle inserts on which bone of the middle ear?

Malleus

210

__________ are swellings at the base of semicircular canals

Ampullae

211

________ ________ is the sensory organ of angular acceleration and deceleration in each ampulla

Crista ampullaris

212

__________ are the gelatinous components of the crista ampullaris in ampullae

Cupula

213

The __________ is the otolith organ within the macula that is oriented horizontally and senses linear acceleration

Utricle

214

The _______ is the otolith organ within the macula that is oriented vertically and senses linear acceleration

Sacculus

215

What type of lever system has resistance between the fulcrum and applied force?

Second class

216

What type of lever system has the force between the resistance and the fulcrum?

3rd class

217

What type of lever system has a fulcrum in the middle, between force and resistance?

First class

218

In terms of lever systems in the body, a long bone acts as a _______, a joint serves as the ______, and the ________ is generated by the muscle attached to the bone

Lever
Fulcrum
Effort

219

The nuchal musculature is an example of what type of lever system?

First class

220

Lifting a dumbbell with the biceps is an example of what type of lever system?

Third class

221

Standing on the ball of the foot is an example of what type of lever system?

Second class

222

What anatomical difference is seen in the forearm of bears, resulting in very strong but relatively slower flexion?

The biceps tendon inserts further down (distally) on the forearm

**So the longer the effort is relative to the load arm, the more efficient the lever system is

223

What anatomical difference in chimps and apes results in their waddle-like gait when walking bipedally?

Their small gluteal musculature is not in the same placec as ours, so in order to stabilize themselves they have to center their weight on either leg with each step

224

The femoral angle is an example of what type of lever system?

First class

225

The mandible is an example of what type of lever system?

Third class

226

What are the 2 paired cranial bones?

Parietal
Temporal

227

What are the 4 unpaired cranial bones?

Frontal
Occipital
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

228

How many cranial bones do we have?

8

229

How many facial bones do we have?

14

230

What are the 6 paired facial bones?

Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Nasal
Palatine
Maxillae
Inferior nasal conchae

231

What are the 2 unpaired facial bones?

Vomer
Mandible

232

What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?

Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxillary

233

What suture of the skull is straighter in lower primates and has become progressively more curvevd in humans and our more recent ancestors?

Squamous

234

Chewing involving significant lateral motions of the mandible and expansion of the brain and braincase are characteristics of which particular group from the Langdon table?

Hominins

235

Anterior protrusion of the skull, development of mastoid process, flexion of the basicranium and retraction of the face, and forehead replacing the supraorbital tori are characteristics of what group from the Langdon table?

Modern humans

236

What are the 4 primary muscles of mastication?

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial and lateral pterygoids

237

The primate gluteus maximus extends much further down the femur in chimps than in humans. What function does the gluteus maximus serve in other primates that it does not do much of in humans?

Abductor

238

The muscle that contributes the most in our gluteal region is the ________, while in chimps and gorillas it is the ___________

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius

239

What part of the pharynx is intimately tied into both respiratory and gustative function?

Oropharynx

240

According to Langdon, what respiratory adaptations are specific to humans?

Decoupling of breath from locomotion
Elimination of thermoregulatory breathing
Enlargement of pharynx and its use in speech
Enlargement of spinal canal for increased motor control of breathing
Protruding nose

241

What are the 3 primary theories as to why the Neanderthals had a pneumotized face?

1. Cool body
2. Warm incoming air
3. Simply due to relatively large face

242

The posterior nasopharynx wall houses a single pharyngeal tonsil, commonly called __________

Adenoids

243

___________ tonsils are on the lateral wall between the anterior palatoglossal arches and posterior palatopharyngeal arches

Palatine

244

__________ tonsils are at the base of the tongue

Lingual

245

Order the following from superior to inferior: bronchi, trachea, larynx

Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi

246

What are the 6 major components of the digestive tract as well as the 4 accessory organs?

Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum+anus

Associated organs: spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

247

What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine in order?

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

248

What are the components of the large intestine in order?

Cecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon

249

What are the dietary adaptations for fruit eaters?

Broad incisors
Low, rounded molar cusps
Long small intestine

250

What are the dietary adaptations for gum eaters?

Stout incisors
Claws for clinging
Long cecum

251

What are the dietary adaptations for leaf eaters?

Well developed molar shearing crests
Small incisors
Large cecum

252

What are the dietary adaptations of insect eaters?

Sharp cusps
Short and simple gut (chitin from exoskeleton easily passes through)

253

What evolutionarily adaptive behavior led to the ability to detoxify food before eating it?

Cooking

254

According to Langdon, what are the mammalian characteristics of the excretory system?

Loop of Henle enhances conservation of water
Ureter separates from the female vagina; common cloaca lost

255

According to Langdon, what are the human characteristics of the excretory system?

Urine concentrating ability is slightly less than that predicted for body size

Eccrine sweat glands supplement the nephrons in filtration and excretion of wastes

256

What are the components of the urinary system as well as the major accessory organ(s)

Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra


Accessory organ = adrenal glands

257

What are the 4 major regions of the brain?

Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brainstem
Cerebellum

258

What are the 5 lobes of the brain?

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Insula

259

Which lobe of the brain contains the primary motor cortex and motor speech area (Broca's)

Frontal

260

What cerebral lobe contains the primary visual cortex?

Occipital

261

What cerebral lobe contains the primary gustatory cortex?

Insula

262

What cerebral lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex as well as part of Wernicke's area?

Parietal

263

What cerebral lobe contains the primary auditory cortex as well as olfactory areas and part of Wernicke's area?

Temporal

264

What is the one cerebral lobe that cannot be seen from the surface?

Insula

265

__________ _________ are paired irregular masses of gray matter buried deep within central white matter

Cerebral nuclei

266

CN I

Olfactory

267

CN II

Optic

268

CN III

Oculomotor

269

CN IV

Trochlear

270

CN V

Trigeminal

271

CN VI

Abducens

272

CN VII

Facial

273

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear

274

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal

275

CN X

Vagus

276

CN XI

Accessory (spinal accessory)

277

CN XII

Hypoglossal

278

What CN supplies all extraoccular eye muscles except superior oblique and lateral rectus, as well as ciliary muscles and constrictor pupillae?

CN III - Oculomotor

279

What CN supplies the superior oblique m. of the eye?

CN IV - Trochlear

280

What CN supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye?

CN VI - Abducens

281

What CN supplies the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles except the palatoglossus?

CN XII - Hypoglossal


(Palatoglossus is controlled by CN X)

282

What CN is responsible for supplying taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN VII - Facial (via chorda tympani which carries preganglionic parasympathetics - piggy backs on V3)

283

What CN provides general sensation and taste to the posterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN IX - Glossopharyngeal

284

What CN provides sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN V - Trigeminal (V3 branch)

285

The chambers of the eye are located within the anterior cavity, with the _______ as the partition between the two chambers

Iris

286

What are the 4 types of papillae on the tongue?

Filiform
Fungiform
Vallate
Foliate

287

What type of papillae are the least numerous yet the largest, are arranged in an inverted V shape on posterior tongue, and most of our taste buds are housed in their walls?

A. Filiform
B. Fungiform
C. Vallate (circumvallate)
D. Foliate

C. Vallate (circumvallate)

288

What type of papillae are distributed on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue surface and do not house taste buds, so they have no sensory role in gustation?

A. Filiform
B. Fungiform
C. Vallate (circumvallate)
D. Foliate

A. Filiform

289

What type of papillae are primarily located on the tip and sides of tongue, and contain only a few taste buds each?

A. Filiform
B. Fungiform
C. Vallate (circumvallate)
D. Foliate

B. Fungiform

290

What type of papillae are not well developed on the human tongue and extend as ridges on the posterior lateral sides? These only house a few taste buds during infancy and childhood

A. Filiform
B. Fungiform
C. Vallate (circumvallate)
D. Foliate

D. Foliate

291

What are the 5 basic taste sensations the human tongue can detect, and what chemical stimuli are these in response to?

Salty
Sweet - glucose
Sour - acidity
Bitter - alkalinity
Umami - glutamic acid (savoriness)

292

What are the 3 salivary glands, specify which is the largest and which produces the most saliva.

Parotid - largest
Sublingual
Submandibular - most saliva

293

Infants have 20 deciduous teeth. How many teeth do adult humans have?

32

294

What is the dental formula of humans and catarrhines?

2:1:2:3

295

Salivation is a parasympathetic function. What CN's contribute to the 3 salivary glands?

Parotid = CN IX (glossopharyngeal)

Sublingual and Submandibular = CN VII (Facial) via chorda tympani