Comparative biology, anatomy, physiology and general nutrition Flashcards Preview

Laboratory Animal Science > Comparative biology, anatomy, physiology and general nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Comparative biology, anatomy, physiology and general nutrition Deck (13):
1

Name two different forms of straw digesters

  • pregastric fermentors
    • microbial fermentation in the foregut
    • cattle, sheep, goat
  • hindgut fermentors
    • fermentation takes place after the small intestine
    • cecal fermetation: rabbits and guinea-pigs; omnivores: rats and mice
    • colon fermentation: horses

2

What are coprophages?

  • Species that eat a special portion of their faeces
  • cecal fermentation --> nutrients cannot be taken up in the caecum
  • e.g. rabbits

3

Different forms of diet

  • pelleted
  • expanded
  • moist
  • powdered
  • wet powdered

4

Adequate nutrition should be controlled and optimised for:

  • species
  • sex
  • health status
  • climate
  • genetic background
  • physiological condition
    • growth, maintenance, ageing
    • reprodcution, lactation

5

Ad libitum feeding in rats is associated with:

  • increased cancer rate
  • reduced survival time
  • increased kidney degenerative disease

6

Which three types of life cycles can be found in mammals?

  • monotremes (laying eggs; platypus)
  • marsupials
    • give birth to small, immature young that further develops inside the mother's external pouch
    • kangaroo, koala
  • placental mammals:
    • babies develop inside the mother's body

7

Why are mice and rats used in research?

  • well characterised
  • many mutant stocks
  • hardy, adaptable, easy to care for and inexpensive, and small size
  • short generation time and high reproductive capacity
  • germ-free and specific pathogen free production
  • large databases available

8

Disadvantages for mice in research

  • their small size
    • sample large volumes is difficult
    • surgery
    • monitoring; blood pressure, oxygenation...
  • don't like to swim

9

Disadvantages for rat in research

  • their small size
    • sample large volumes is difficult
    • surgery
    • monitoring; blood pressure, oxygenation...
  • few genetic modified strains

10

What are guinea pigs used for in research?

  • vitamin C deficiency
  • allergy research
  • auditory studies
  • susceptible for tuberculosis

11

Disadvantages of guinea pig in research

 

  • antibiotic sensitive
  • few inbred strains
  • lack of tail vein
  • relative high susceptilibity for infections

12

Rabbits in research

  • studies of immune response
  • antibody production
  • eye research
  • bone formation
  • placental barrier similar to humans; extremely susceptible to both embryo toxic and terotgenic agents

13

Use of frog (xenopus laevis) in research

  • regeneration of limbs
  • embryological studies
  • education; neurons
  • sodium channels using eggs