Complete Deck Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Complete Deck Part 1 Deck (388):
1

When should Intercourse be avoided during Pregnancy?

Cervical dilation, placenta previa, premature labor, vaginal bleeding, ruptured membranes, genital herpes

2

What is Type 2 RTA?

Proximal RTA: bad Carbonic Anhydrase, lost all HCO3-

3

What is Heavy Chain Disease?

IgA and Multiple Myeloma of the GI tract

4

What is Nihilism?

Feeling of "life is meaningless"

5

What is Forward Typing?

Uses Antibodies to detect Antigens

6

What is associated with Vibrio Vulnificus?

Raw Oyster - common in workers shucking the oysters, cellulitis in swimmer's cuts

7

What is the MOA of Propranolol, Timolol?

B1 and B2 Blockers

8

What is Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease?

Mouth ulcersWill not eat or drinkPalm and sole rash caused by Coxsackie A

9

What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?

Simple (aware), complex (not aware)

10

What is an Omphalocele?

Intestines protrude out of the umbilicus covered by peritoneum

11

What is Clanging?

Words that sound alike

12

What is exudate?

Effusion of mostly proteinToo much protein: Will have ---Purulent (from Bacteria),Hemorrhagic (from trauma, CA, PE)Fibrinous (from collagen vascular disease), Granulomatous (non-bacterial)

13

What are the Mimetic drugs?

Pramlintide

14

What is Lewy Body Dementia?

Stiff with visual hallucinations

15

What type of problem is there if serum Ca2+ and Serum PO4- change in same directions?

This is a secondary problem

16

What is the Pool Test?

Fluid in the vagina

17

What are the indications for Odansetron?

Control vomiting in patients undergoing chemo therapy and postoperatively

18

What is Kd?

Concentration of drug that binds 50% of receptors

19

What is associated with H. Aegyptius?

Swollen eyeball with pus

20

What is Overflow Incontinence?

Cannot completely empty bladder

21

How does Gonorrhea present?

Palmar pustules, arthritis/joint pain, urethral discomfor

22

What makes Achalasia unique?

Decreased Peristalsis and increased LES pressure

23

What is the MOA of Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine?

Sympathomimetic alpha-agonistsnon-prescription nasal decongestants

24

Where does DHT come from?

Testicles at puberty

25

What is Intraductal Papilloma?

Bleeding from the nippleMost common Breast CA

26

How does temporal arteritis present?

Pain with chewing, blind in one eye

27

What diseases have PIE syndrome?

Aspergillus, Loeffler's, Churg-Strauss

28

What is associated with Fusobacterium?

Painful mouth ulcers, gum pus, Vincent's angina

29

What is the MOA of ACE inhibitors?

Inhibits conversion of Ang I to Ang II, decreases Ang II

30

What is Central (neurogenic) diabetes insipidus?

Brain not making or producing enough ADH

31

What is Arnold-Chiari?

Foramen Magnum obstruction

32

What is 1st-order kinetics?

Constant drug percentage metabolism over time depends on drug concentration (rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration)

33

What does Vit B2 do?

FAD cofactor

34

Clues for atypical pneumonia?

Atypical pneumonia: prolonged illness, low fever, usually >40 y/oX-ray: diffuse, H. Influenza, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

35

What does giving DDAVP during the Water deprivation tests tell you?

>50% increase (central complete DI),10-50% increase (central partial DI),<10% (psychogenic polydipsia),no change (nephrogenic DI)

36

What will you see with Alpha Thalassemia?

Seen in African Americans and Asian Americans (Chromosome 16- deletion)

37

What are the simple Gram Negative Bugs?

They lack Lipopolysaccharides,"Simple HE"H - H. InfluenzaE - E. Coli

38

What is a Neutrophil?

The Phagocyte (it has Antimicrobials, most abundant)

39

What is the MOA of Glucocorticoids?

Decrease production of Leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and expression of COX-2

40

What is Transference?

Patient views doctor as parent

41

Where is the most common site of a Clavicle fracture due to birth?

Middle third of the Clavicle

42

What are the indications for Niacin?

Decrease LDL and TriglyceridesStrong increase HDL

43

What is Perseveration?

Keeps repeating the same words

44

What does the parathyroid cells secrete?

PTH

45

What is associated with Actinomyces?

Face Fistulas, Sulfur Granules

46

What is a Rolling Hiatal Hernia?

Bowel Protruded through a defect in the Diaphragm. This can strangulate the bowel and can cause Atelectasis

47

What is Mesenteric Ischemia?

Abdominal pain of of proportion to physical exam

48

What is the MOA of Diazoxide?

K+ channel opener, hyperpolarizes and relaxes smooth muscle

49

What is Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis?

Anti-smooth muscle antibody (20-50%), bile ducts are scarred from inflammation, there is beading and onion skinning, it's associated with UC and P-ANCA (80%)

50

What does the viral load tell you?

Progression of HIV

51

Which enlarged lymph nodes are most likely malignant?

Supraclavicular, Epitrochlear (above the elbow), inguinal

52

What is Velamentous Cord Insertion?

Fetal vessels insert between chorion and amnion

53

What is Common Variable Immuno. Def?

Young adults with B cells that do not work

54

What are the Indications for Oxytocin?

Induces labor and Controls uterine hemorrhage

55

What does Mg2+ do?

PTH and kinase cofactor

56

What are the risk factors for Lung CA?

Smoking, Radon, second hand smoke, pneumoconiosis (except Anthracosis)

57

What is the Adverse Effect for first generation Sulfonylureas?

Disulfiram like effects

58

What is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple osteolytic lesionsIncreased IgG and kappa light chainsRouleaux formation seen on slide

59

Clues for Typical pneumonia?

Typical pneumonia: short illness, high fever, usually >40 y/o, X-ray: one lobe, Streptococcus Pneumonia

60

What is Polycythemia Vera?

Hematocrit (Hct) >60% Decreased EPO, Budd-ChiariPruritis after bathing

61

What is the MOA of Mimetics?

Decreases Glucagon

62

What is Ascending Cholangitis?

Common bile duct infection due to stones

63

What does Growth Hormone (GH) do?

Stimulates growth, sends Somatomedin to growth plates, Gluconeogenesis by proteolysis

64

What is Anderson's?

Branching enzyme deficiency, long chains of glycogen

65

What is the Sympathetic System?

Fight -or- Flight, speeds stuff up

66

What is a Double Footling Breech?

Two feet sticking outside the cervical OS

67

What vessel has the thickest layer of smooth muscle?

Aorta

68

What is Competitive Inhibition?

Fights for active site, no change in Vmax, potency decreases

69

What does blood type O tell you?

They have no antigens (Universal donor)

70

What does high WBC and B Cells tell you?

Bacterial infection

71

What are the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Energy State?

Skin: dryNails: BrittleHair: AlopeciaLow Bone Marrow: SuppressedVasculature: Endothelium breaks downLungs: Infection / SOBKidney: PCT effecfted firstGI: N/V/DBladder: Decreased toneSperm: DecreasedGerm Cells: Predisposed to cancerBreasts: AtrophicEndometrium: Amenorrhea

72

What diseases are cause by the Ixodes Ticks?

Lyme Disease - bull's eye lesionBabesiosis - Hemolytic AnemiaEhrlichiosis - puncture near eye

73

What does a Dehydrogenase do?

Catalyzes Oxidation-Reduction reactions (gaining or losing an electron)

74

What is Unconjugated Bilirubin?

Fat soluble and indirect Bilirubin

75

What is a transition?

Changes one purine to another purine

76

What is Crigler-Najjar Type I?

Unconjugated bilirubin buildupNewborn or infantsNo UDP-GTPhenobarbital yields no change

77

What organ has the highest AVO2 difference after excercise?

Muscle

78

What are the bugs that cause gastroenteritis within 8 hours of eating the preformed toxin?

Staph Aureus (potato salad)Clostridium Perfringens (holiday turkey/ham)Bacillus Cereus (fried rice syndrome)

79

What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?

From the lung, breast, and skin, present at the White-Grey Junction

80

What is Polyhydramnios?

Too much amniotic fluid (baby can't swallow)

81

What is the function of GnRH?

Stimulates release of LH & FSH

82

What are the risk factors for Esophageal / Gastric CA?

Smoking, alcohol and nitrates

83

What is Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?

Gradual or acute separation of the proximal femoral growth plate with femur head slipping off femoral neck and rotating into inferior-posterior position. Most common during puberty and more in overweight individuals, present with a limp and pain recurring often to the kneeLimited hip internal rotation and outward rotation of lump with hip flexionx-ray: epiphyseal displacement

84

FEV1/FVC in Restrictive lung disease

Normal or elevated

85

What has Waxy Casts?

Chronic Renal Failure

86

What are the only Gram-negative diplococci?

Neisseriamoraxella

87

How does a VIPoma present?

Watery diarrhea

88

What are the indications for the Class IB antiarrhythmic?

Decrease AP duration, acute ventricular Arrhythmias, local anesthesia

89

What defines Diarrhea?

>200 grams of stool per day

90

What defines constipation?

Less than 3 bowel movements per week

91

What defines ALL?

0-15 year old males, bone pain, + PAS stain and +TdT. CALLA antigen positiveT (12;21)

92

What is the MOA of Class IB antiarrhythmic?

Na+ channel blocker

93

What is a Duodenal Ulcer?

Pain 20-30 minutes after eating, relieved with food, caused by H. Pylori infection 80-90% of the time and weight gain

94

What is a Female Pseudohermaphrodite?

XX with LOW 21-OHase and HIGH Testosterone

95

What are the adverse effects of Acid Resins?

Tastes bad and causes GI discomfortbile decreases absorption of fat soluble vitaminscholesterol gallstones

96

What is Hurler's?

Alph-L-Iduronidase deficiencyworse formGargoylismCorneal cloudingaccumulation of Heparin and Dermatan Sulfate

97

What are the indications for fibrates?

Strong decrease of triglyceridesslight decrease of LDLslight increase in HDL

98

What are the classifications of MHC-2?

HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR

99

What is Cori's?

Debranching, a-1,6 glucosidase enzyme deficiencyshort branches of glycogenmilder form of von Gierke with normal lactate levelslimit-dextrin's accumulate

100

How does Choanal Atresia Present?

Baby turns blue with feeding, pinks up when breast of bottle is removed (blocked nasal passages)

101

What is the job of the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?

Reabsorb Glucose, Amino Acids, Salt, Bicarb. >60-80% Reabsorption occurs here

102

What is Bronchiectasis?

Bad breath, purulent sputum, and hemoptysis

103

What electrolytes does the low volume state have?

Increased total Na+ (NET)Decreased serum Na (dilution effect)Decreased serum K+Increased serum pH

104

In what layers does a pseudo aortic aneurysm occur?

Intima and media layers

105

Who makes the Syncytiotrophoblast?

Mom and baby production of HCG and HPL

106

What is Metorrhagia

Bleeding or spotting in btwn periods

107

How does Spastic Colon present?

Intermittent severe cramps

108

What is selective IgG2 Deficiency?

Seen in patients with recurrent encapsulated infections

109

What diseases have respiratory acidosis?

Obstructive lung diseases

110

What is Prinzmetal's angina?

Coronary Artery Spasm

111

What does high WBC and High PMN's tell you?

Stress demargination. (Stress response - post trauma)

112

What causes a Cleft Palate?

Maxillary shelves did not fuse

113

What is Rouleaux formation?

Seen in Multiple Myeloma (Stacked coin look)

114

What is Neologisms?

New words

115

What is Nephrotic Kidney Disease?

Lostbasement membrange chargeProteinuria >3.5hypercoagulablelipiduria

116

What does a Phosphatase do?

Removes Phosphate from substrate

117

What bug loves the parietal lobe?

Toxoplasma

118

What bug is associated with Cat Scratch?

Bartonella Henselae

119

What is Selective IgA Deficiency?

Seen in transfusion, anaphylaxis, and mucus membrane infections

120

What is the Trough level?

2 hours before next dose (too high - give less often)

121

What is VHL?

Predisposes individuals to bnign and malignant tumors, AVM in the head, and retina (AD inheritance in Chromosome 3)

122

What causes a Cleft Lip?

Medial nasal prominence did not fuse

123

What is the MOA of Reserpine?

Prevents the storage of monoamines in synaptic vesicle

124

What are the 3 tests used to screen for HIV?

ELISA: Detects IgG Ab to p24 AgWestern Blot: ProteinsPCR: Detects Virus (used in babies)

125

What is Materninty Blues?

Postpartum crying and irritability

126

What are the inidications for PPIs?

Peptic ulcer, gastritis, mid-esophageal Reflux and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

127

What are the Ca2+ channel blockers?

Verapamil, Diltiazem

128

What is Conn's Syndrome?

High Aldosterone (primary tumor), Cpatopril test makes it worse, and increase's secretin hormone

129

What color is stool with a Lower GI Bleed?

Bright Red Blood (Hematochezia)

130

What is Type 5 Hypderlipidemia?

Defective enzyme and receptor (C-II) Elevated VLDL and ChylomicronsAssociated with DM

131

What is the RBC lifespan when there is a problem?

60-90 days (same time as the shelf life of blood bank units)

132

What sound radiates to the back?

Pulmonic stenosis

133

What is the MOA of Prazosin?

Alpha 1-Blocker, vasodilation, decreases TPR

134

What is Sandhoff's?

Hexosaminidase A/B deficiency

135

What is the MOA of Octreotide (Synthetic analog of Somatostatin)?

Decreases release of GH, Gastrin, CCK, Carcinoid, VUP, Glucagon and Insulin

136

How is Smallpox different from Chickenpox?

Smallpox is on the face, same stage of development and fever

137

What is Diffusion?

From high to low concentration No ATP

138

What are the Fibrates?

Gemfibrozil, Clofibrate, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate

139

What is Anthracosis?

Coal workers, extensive fibrosis

140

What is Conduct Disorder?

Younger than 18 y/o with traits of antisocial disorder: aggressive, disregard for authority/rules, no sense of guilt/remorse, harms animals, illegal activity "bite is worse than bark". Behavioral therapy and antipsychotic

141

What are the names of the B vitamins?

"The Rich Never Lie about Panning Pyrite Filled Creeks"Vit B1 = ThiamineVit B2 = RiboflavinVit B3 = NiacinVit B4 = Lipoic acidVit B5 = Pantothenic acidVit B6 = PyridoxineVit B7 = BiotinVit B9 = FolateVit B12 = Cobalamin

142

What 5 bugs cause heart block infections?

"Don't TeLL Chaga"D- DiphtheriaT- Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi)L- LegionellaL- Lyme DiseaseC- Chagas Disease (Whipple's)

143

What is a Complete Abortion?

Cervix is closed, no fetal remnants, check B-HCG level

144

What is a "Blue Bloater"?

Chronic Bronchitis

145

What are the Indications for ACE inhibitors?

HTN, CHF, post MI and vasodilation

146

What is the MOA osmotic Laxatives?

Provide osmotic load to draw water outLactulose treats Hepatic encephalopathy: gut flora degrades it into metabolites (lactic acid and acetic acid) that promote Nitrogen excretion as NH4+

147

What is the treatment for hypercholesterolemia?

Statins

148

What are the adverse effects of Minoxidil?

Hypertrichosis and Pericardial Effusion

149

What are the adverse effects of adenosine?

flushing, hypotension, and chest pain very short acting

150

What are the Glucocorticoid drugs?

Hydrocortisone, Triamcinolone, Dexamethasone, Prednisone, Beclomethasone

151

Whatis Pheochromocytoma?

Adrenal medulla tumor in adults, they will have five P's: Palpitations, Perspiration, Pallor, Pressure (HTN), and Pain (headache)

152

What is Byssinosis?

Cotton workers, textile workers

153

What is Chediak Higashi?

Lazy Leukocyte Syndrome(Lysosomes are slow to fuse around bacteria)

154

What is Korsakoff Psychosis?

Alcoholic Thiamine deficiency. Presents with confusion, Opthalmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss, confabulation and personality changeTx: Vit B1

155

What type of Kidney Stones have Coffin-Lid Crystals?

Triple Phosphate (Struvite)

156

What is the difference between carotid body and carotid sinus?

Carotid Body: ChemoreceptorCarotid Sinus: Baroreceptor

157

What is Meconium?

Green baby poop (first poop)

158

What does Insulin do?

Pushes glucose into cells and K+ follows

159

What causes Granuloma Inguinale?

CalymmatobacteriumGranulomatosisKlebsiella Granulomatis

160

What is the MOA of Carvedilol?

Alpha and B-Blocker

161

What is the MOA of Levothyroxine (T4)/Triiodothyronine (T3)?

Thyroxine replacement

162

What is Anisocytosis?

RBC's with different sizes

163

What is Pain Disorder?

Prolonged pain not explained by physical causes

164

What causes Congenital Blindness?

CMV

165

What is Plummer-Vinson Syndrome?

Esophageal webs, Iron-deficiency anemia, dysphagia

166

What is Neurofibromatosis?

Cafe' au laut spots (hyperpigmentation)Peripheral nerve tumors, axillary frecklesType 1: Von Recklinghausen's-- Chromosome 17, peripheral, optic glioma, Lisch nodules, scoliosisType 2: Acoustic Neuroma, Central, Chromosome 22, cataracts, bilateral deafness

167

What is associated with Strep Viridans, Strep Mutans, and Strep Salivarius?

Subacute bacterial Endocarditis, green pigment, Alpha HemolyticStrep Mutans - dental cariesStrep Salivarius - cold agglutinates

168

What are the adverse effects of Dextromethorphan?

Mild opioid effect so mild abuse potential

169

What is the most common cause of Epididymitis?

Chlamydia Trachomatis, N. Gonorrhea, E. Coli

170

What is Charcot's Triad?

Jaundice, Fever (usually with rigors) and RUQ pain

171

What is seen with Manganese deficiency?

Lose xanthine oxidase function

172

What is Psychogenic Polydipsia?

Drinking a lot of water, diluting Na in blood

173

What is seen in newborns with Syphilis in utero infection?

Rhages (lip fissue), Saber shin legs (anterior bowing of the tibia), Hutchinson's Razor teeth,Mulberry Molars

174

What is the afferent arteriole's job?

Monitor pressure (JG cells-Renin release)

175

How do you detect a Pulmonary Embolus?

Tachypneaincreased V/Q scanECG may show signs of right heart strain or acute cor pulmonale in cases of Large Pes - large S wave in lead I, a large Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead IIIS1Q3T3

176

What is a frameshift mutation?

Insert or delete any number of bases, not divisible by 3, causes misreading of all downstream nucleotides

177

What is the Isoelectric Point?

The pH at which there is no net charge

178

What does an opening snap tell you?

Mitral or Tricuspid Stenosis

179

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in FA synthesis?

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC)

180

What does a Phosphorylase do?

Adds inorganic Phosphate to substrate, No ATP used

181

What is associated with EHEC?

Hemorrhagic = renal failure

182

What are the Bile acid resins?

CholestyramineColestipolColesevelam

183

What is associated with Enterococcus?

UTI, infective Endocarditis post GI/GU procedure

184

What is Voyeurism?

Watching other people without their permission

185

What does CCK (Cholecystokinin) do?

Stimulates bile release and gallbladder contraction, inhibits gastric motility (closes sphincters), and made by I-cell of duodenum

186

What does LDL do?

It carries Cholesterol (only one to do this)

187

What is TORCH Infection?

Toxoplasmosis: Hydrocephalus with generalized intracranial calcification and choriogenesis.Others= HIV, Syphilis, Varicella, B-19HIV= Most infected are asymptomatic, clinical symptoms-- Lymphadenopathy/HepatosplenomegalySyphilis= Osteochondritis and Peridotites; skin rash on palms and soles, snufflesVaricells = Pneumonia (neonatal); limb hypoplasia, cutaneous scar, seizure, MRB-19 = Hydrops FetalisRubella = Cataracts, deafness and heart defects, blueberry muffin spotsCMV = Microcephaly with periventricular calcification, petechia with thrombocytopenia, sensorineural hearing lossHerpes = 1st week: Pneumonia/shock2nd week: Skin vesicles, keratoconjunctivitis3rd week: Acute Meningoencephalitis

188

What does Dopamine (DA) do?

Inhibits Prolactin (PRL) release

189

What is Bipolar II?

Depression and Hypomania (no psychosis)

190

What is the Capacitation reaction?

Allow binding btwn sperm & egg

191

What is associated with Klebsiella Pneumonia?

Alcoholics, Currant Jelly Sputum, UTI, Lung fissures

192

What is the Indication for Demeclocycline?

SIADH

193

What lysosomal diseases have a Gargoyle face?

Gaucher'sHurler's

194

What is a Footling Breech/Incomplete breech?

Butt down. Thigh flexed, one toe is sticking out of the cervical OS

195

What is the MOA of Glitazones/Thiazolidinedione's?

Increases Insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Transaction modulation by Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma in Nuclus

196

What makes B-HCG?

Placenta (synctiotrophoblast)

197

What does erythropoietin (EPO) do?

Makes RBC's (prolong RBC life)

198

What is Erythrasma?

Rash in the skin folds, coral-red under Wood's Lamp

199

What do stomach chief cells secrete?

Pepsin

200

What are the Adverse Effects of Sulfasalazine?

Malaise, nausea, Sulfonamide toxicity, reversible Oligospermia

201

What are the indications for Class IC antiarrhythmic?

Ventricular tachy progressing to V. fib, last resort

202

What is Tracheomalacia?

Soft cartilage and stridor since birth

203

What is the MOA of Sulfasalazine?

A combination of sulfapyridine (antibacterial) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (anti-inflammtory) activated by colonig bacteria

204

What are the Indications for Biguanides?

First line therapy in Type 2 DM

205

What is Choledocholithiasis?

Gallstone obstructs the bile duct

206

What bug loves the frontal lobe?

Rubella

207

What is a Platelet?

The clotter (has no nuclei and smallest cells)

208

How do I know the patient has a Vitamin E Deficiency?

Increased free radical damage, hemolytic anemia, ataxia gait, impaired position and vibration sense

209

What is Pseudohermaphrodite?

external genitalia problem

210

What is Niemann-Pick?

Sphingomyelinase deficiencyAreflexiaHepatosplenomegalyfoam cells (Lipid Laden macrophages)

211

What is Efficacy?

Maximal effect drug can produce regardless of dose (lower w/ non-competitive antagonist)

212

What are the Indications for Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors?

NIDDM. (Type 2)

213

What type of kidney stones have hexagonal crystals?

Cysteine

214

What does Oxytocin do?

Milk letdown and uterine contractions

215

What is sinusitis?

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, tooth pain worsens upon bending forward

216

What is duodenal Atresia?

Bilious vomiting with first feeding, double bubble sign on x-ray, associated with Downs Syndrome

217

What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I?

"Wermer's" 3 P's: Pancreas, Pituitary, Parathyroid adenoma

218

What GI diseases has a RLQ Sausage mass?

Intussusception

219

What is a Dohle Body?

PMN Leukocytosis(caused by infections, steroids, tumor)

220

What does an ejection click tell you?

Aortic or Pulmonic Stenosis

221

What is associated with Clostridium Perfringens?

Holiday ham and turkey - left out on counter and Clostridium jumps on and waits, enterotoxin causes Gastroenteritis, food gets reheated - bug is loving life, DM patients get Gas Gangrene due to the alpha toxin, also found in soil and feces

222

What Is Lesch-Nyhan?

HGPRT deficiencygrout neuropathyself-mutilationDystoniaXLRPrange sand crystals in diaper

223

What is a Bite Cell?

Unstable Hb inclusions (seen in G6PD Deficiency)

224

What is Antisocial Personality Disorder?

Lie, cheat, steal, destroy property, impulsive without remorse, illegal activity, aggressive towards others. Must be over 18 y/o

225

What are the Adverse Effects of Odansetron?

Headache, constipation, dizziness

226

What does Southwestern blot detect?

DNA-binding Proteins (combines south and western blots)

227

What does a paradoxical S-2 split tell you?

Aortic Stenosis or LBBB

228

What is Pre-Eclampsia?

Ischemia to the placenta causes HTN greater than 140/90

229

What is the MOA of FIbrates?

Upregulate LPL, increase triglyceride clearance

230

What is the Crystallization reaction?

Wall formed after one sperm enters to prevent polyspermy

231

What does auscaltation of wheezing tell you?

Intrathoracic narrowing (seen on expiration on x-ray)

232

What are Ideas of Reference?

Believes the media is monitoring you

233

What does the Citrate shuttle do?

FA transport out of the mitochondria

234

What conditions cause weight gain?

Obesity, Hypothyroidism, Depression, Cushing's, Anasarca

235

What does Vit B5 do?

Part of Acetyl-CoA, no known diseases

236

What is Spina bifida aperta?

Has opening (High AFP)

237

What is HELLP Syndrome?

Hepatic injury causing:H- HemolysisEL- Elevated Liver EnzymeLP- Low Platelets

238

What is the MOA of Class IA antiarrhythmic?

Na+ channel blocker

239

What is the fucntion of LH (Luteinizing hormone)?

Stimulates Testosterone release from the testis, Androgens and Progesterone release from the ovary

240

What is the Parasympathetic System?

Rest and digest, slows stuff down

241

When do you see silent thyroiditis?

Post-partum patients

242

What are the adverse effects of Reserpine?

Mental depression

243

What is associated with Paseurella Multocida?

Cat/Dog saliva => Cellulits with lymphadenitis

244

What is Gigantism?

Childhood form of Acromegaly

245

What form of Estrogen is highest at Menopause?

E1: Estrone (Made by Fat)E2: Estradiol (Made by the ovaries)E3: Estriol (Made by the placenta)

246

What are the adverse effects of Losartan?

Fetal renal toxicityHyperkalemia

247

What is pulse pressure?

Systolic minus diastolic pressure

248

What is Addison's disease?

Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex, causes hyperpigmentation (looks tan), and increased ACTH

249

What is the muscarinic antagonist drug used for asthma?

Ipratropium

250

What is the function of Prolactin (PRL)?

Milk production

251

What is associated with Chlamydia Trachomatis?

Neonatal in-turned eyelashes, Corneal Ulcers

252

How do I know the patient has a Vitamin D Deficiency?

Rickets (children), Osteomalacia (adults)

253

What is Zenker's Diverticulum?

Cough up undigested food from above the UES, Halitosis, motor dysfunction problem

254

What is a Male Hermaphrodite?

XY with no MIF

255

What is Dissociative Fugue?

No past memory at all, even if they see someone from the past - they have no ideaTravel to a new place, usually due to trauma

256

What is an Allograft?

Human to human transplant

257

What are the indications for the Class IA antiarrhythmic?

Increase AP duration, icnrease effective refractory period (ERP) QT interval, affect reentrant and ectopic SVT and ventricular tachy

258

What is Ovarian Hyperstimulation syndrome?

Weight gain and enlarged ovaries after clomiphene use for infertility

259

What is the first generation Sulfonylureas?

Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide?

260

What is the difference between Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia's?

Myeloid: increased RBC, WBC, platelets, macrophages (decreased Luymphoid cells) and bone marrow biopsyLymphoid: increased NK, T, B cells (decreased Myeloid cells) and do lymph node biopsy

261

What are the indications for corticosteroids?

Chronic asthma, COPD

262

What are the acidic amino acids?

Asp, Glu

263

What is the Indication for GLP-1 Analogs?

NIDDM. (Type 2)

264

What does Fremitus, Egophony and Bronchophony tell you?

Consolidation (pathognomonic for pneumonia)

265

What diseases have high eosinophils?

"NAACP"N - Neoplasm (Lymphoma)A - Allergy/ AsthmaA - Addison's disease (no cortisol -relative eosinophilia)C - Collagen Vascular diseaseP - Parasites

266

What does "Penia" tell you?

Low Levels - (Usually due to virus or drugs)

267

What happens with Rubella infections in utero?

Cataracts, hearing loss, PDA, "blueberry muffin" rash (Rash on face that spreads to trunk)

268

What is a complete molar pregnancy?

2 Sperm and no egg (46, XX) both are paternal, bunch of graps, dad eats grapes, no embryo(GROSS!)

269

Where does Testosterone come from?

Adrenal gland and testicles

270

What antibody shows past Hep A infection?

IgG

271

What hepatitis B labs indicate recent immunization within >2/52wks?

HBsAg+

272

What is Thought Blocking?

Stops mid-sentence

273

What is Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis?

T-cell defect against Candida Albicans and chronic fatigue

274

What is Budd-Chiari

Hepatic vein obstruction

275

What does "Cythemia" tell you?

High levels

276

What are the degrees of Vaginal Lacerations?

1st Degree: Skin2nd Degree: Muscle3rd Degree: Anus4th Degree: Rectum

277

What are the Indications for GH?

GH deficiency in children, Turner syndrome, and Burn victims

278

What does a Kinase do?

Adds Phosphate group to substrate using ATP

279

What will Ranson's criteria tell you and what will you see at 48 hours?

Prognosis of Pancreatitis patients BUN >5 mg/dL (decreased RBF)Calcium <8mg/dL (saponification)HCT drops >10% (bleeding into pancreas)sequester > 6 liters of fluid (3rd spacing)Oxygen pO2 <60 mmHg (fluid/protein leak, leads to ARDS)base deficit >4 mEq/L (diarrhea due to no pancreatic enzymes)

280

What is Cushing's Triad?

HTN, Bradycardia, irregular breathing

281

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Red rash with oily skin and dry flaky hairline, crusty lesion

282

What receptors do Steroid Hormones use?

Nuclear membrane receptors (except cortisol cytoplasmic receptor)

283

What is the MOA of Antileukotriene?

5-lipoxygenase inhibitor -> inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene -> prevents bronchoconstriction and inflammatory cell infiltrate

284

What lysosomal diseases have a cherry-red macula?

Tay-sachs, Niemann-Pick

285

What is a Meduloblastoma?

Pseudorosettes compressing the brain, early morning vomiting

286

What antibody shows current Hep A infection?

IgM

287

What does Vit B3 do?

NAD cofactor

288

What are the essential amino acids?

Phynlalanine, Valine, Threonine(PVT)Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine(TIM)Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine(HALL)

289

What is the Dawn Phenomenon?

Morning hyperglycemia secondary to Growth Hormone

290

What is Hepatorenal Syndrome?

High urea from the Liver leads to: increased Glutaminase, Ammonia, GABA- Kidney shuts down

291

What is Nevus Flammeus?

Port Wine Stain - Permanent- Unilateral of face or neck- Vascular malformation - Sturge - Weber syndrome - Vasculitis- Mgt: Pulsed laser therapy

292

What defines CML?

30-50 y/o females t(9;22)Philadelphia Chromosomebcr-abl

293

What is a Kleihauer-Betke Test?

Detects percentage of fetal blood in maternal circulation (Dilution test)

294

What is Kallmann's Syndrome?

No GnRH and Anosmia. (They can't smell)

295

What are the aromatic amino acids?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

296

What structures have one-way valves?

Urethra and ejaculatory duct

297

How fast should fundal height change?

Uterus grows 1 cm/week

298

What GI disease has an Abrupt Cut off on X-Ray?

Volvulus

299

What is associated with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa?

Otitis Externa, Ecthyma Gangrenosum, loves rubber, Whirlpool Folliculitis, exotoxin (ADP ribosylates EF-2)

300

What is normal blood loss during a Vaginal Deliver?

500 mL

301

What is Achalasia?

Increased LES Pressure (no Auerbach's Plexus), Bird's Beak on X-Ray and also seen in Chagas Disease

302

What are the most common causes of Oligohydramnios?

Abdominal Muscle Problem: Prune Belly Renal Agenesis: Potters Syndrome

303

What causes anterior leg bowing?

Neonatal syphilis

304

What are the Intravascular Hemolytic Anemias?

IgM G6PD deficiencycold autoimmune

305

What are the adverse effects of the Class IA antiarrhythmic?

Quinidine: CinchonismProcainamide: Torsades de Pointes

306

What does Trypsin cut?

Arg, Lys

307

What is a Dandy Walker malformation?

No cerebellum, distended 4th and lateral ventricles

308

What is Synesthesia?

Smells colors

309

Where is a Bochdalek Hernia?

Occur more commonly on the posterior left side (diaphragm), most common congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH)

310

What is Menetrier's Disease?

Loss of protein through the rugal folds. Causes generalized edema. CMV association in children and H. Pylorus in Adults

311

What is a True Hermaphrodite?

Internal genitalia problem (has both sexes)

312

What gives urine its yellow color?

Urobilinogen being oxidized to urobilin

313

What is a Schistocyte?

Broken RBC (seen in DIC and artificial heart vlaves and others)

314

What does vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) do?

Inhibits secretin, motilin, and CCK, and opens Sphincters

315

What are the adverse effects of Digoxin?

Cholinergic, ECG: icnrease PR, decrease QT worsened by renal failureQuinidine displaces Digoxin from tissue binding sites

316

What is Amnesia?

Can't recall important facts

317

What is Type A gastritis?

Upper GI bleed, autoimmune (anti-parietal cell antibodies), Atrophic / Achlorhydria and increased risk for adenocarcinoma (body & fundus region of the stomach)

318

What organ has the highest AVO2 difference after a meal?

GI tract

319

What is Inflammatory Carcinoma?

Infiltrates Lymphatics, pulls on Cooper's Ligaments "Peau d'Orange"

320

What is associated with Propionibacterium acnes?

Acne, Progesterone => Propionic acid

321

What type of immunity does TH2 provide?

Enhances humoral immunity

322

What is Multiple Myeloma?

Male >40 with lower back painSerum M protein (IgG)Bence-Jones Proteins in the urineRouleaux formationPunched out lesions on x-ray

323

What is the function of TRH?

Stimulates TSH release

324

What are some causes of G6PD Deficiency?

Sulfa drugs, mothballs, fava beans, sudden drop in Hb

325

What is Erythema Toxicum?

White wheal on red area rash has Eosinophils

326

What is Pseudocyesis

Fake pregnancy with all the signs and symptoms

327

How does Herpes present?

Primary: Painful grouped vesicles on red baseSecondary: Painful solitary lesion

328

What is squamous cell CA?

Seen in smokers, high PTH and Ca2+

329

What is the cell-mediated immune response?

T-cells and Macrophages patrol the tissues looking for non-bacteria

330

What is a Thyrotrope?

TSH

331

What is seen / causes in Aplastic Anemia?

PancytopeniaAutoimmuneBenzeneAZTChloramphenicolRadiation

332

What is the function of CRH?

Stimulates ACTH release

333

What is the Gram Positive Capsule?

S. Pneumonia

334

What does Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) and Thymosin do?

Help T-cells mature

335

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Heme synthesis?

Delta-ALA Synthase

336

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

"Perpetual Teenager", splitting (love/hate), projection, acting out, self-mutiliation, unstable relationships, impulsive

337

What does Rh+ tell you?

Has D Antigen

338

Can you die during ETOH withdrawal?

Yes

339

What Kidney complications can Lithium cause to the person taking the drug?

Destroy the collecting ducts V2 aquaporin receptors, causing Nephrogenic DI

340

What is a Biophysical Profile (BPP)?

By US look for:Non-stress testAFIFetal heart toneFetal ActivityBreathing Movement

341

What do you see in Grave's Disease?

Exophthalmos, Pretibial myxedema, anti-TSH receptor antibodies

342

What bug loves the hippocampus?

Rabies

343

What diseases have metabolic acidosis?

"MUDPILES" and diarrhea

344

What unstable angina?

Pain at rest (transient clots MCC)

345

What is a Pinealoma?

Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian rhythms lead to precocious puberty

346

What does THF donate methyl groups for?

Nucleotides

347

What is the MOA of Misoprostol?

PGE1 analog, increase production and secretion of gastric mucous barrier, decreased acid production

348

What is Lichen Sclerosis?

Paper like vulva, itching, CA risk

349

What is an Eosinophil?

The parasite destroyer and allergy inducer

350

What is seen in Paroxysmal Cold Auto Autoimmune?

Bleeds after cold exposure Donath-Landsteiner Ab

351

What does the E Ag tell you?

Transmissibility/ Infectivity

352

What is Intussusception?

Currant Jelly Stool, Stacked Coin Enema, sausage shaped mass and knees to chest for comfort

353

What is Type 1 Hyperlipidemia?

Defective Liver Lipoprotein Lipase (chylomicrons are elevated)

354

What is Uterus Rupture?

Tearing sensation, halt of delivery

355

What is associated with (PCP) Pneumocystis Carinii pnemonia?

AIDS and preemies, rusty sputum, silver stains the lungs, increased LDH, Treat with steroids

356

Why do pregnant women get Anemia?

Due to the dilution effect: RBC rises 30%, but body volume rises 50%

357

What is associated with Vibrio Cholera?

Rice Water Diarrhea, ADP- Ribosylates Gs = High cAMP, Turning the on... on

358

What vessel has the highest compliance?

Veins

359

What is the smallest amino acid?

Gly

360

What is a point mutation?

Changes one base

361

What are Esophageal Varices?

Due to Portal HTN, vomit large amounts of blood when they rupture

362

What is MGM?

BM spikes, granular/linear supepithelial spikes and closes

363

What type of kidney stones have Rosette Crystals?

Uric acid

364

What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia II (2A)?

"Sipple's" Pheochromocytoma, Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Parathyroid Adenoma. (tumor marker RET)

365

What are Spur Cells / Acanthocytes?

Lipid bilayer disease

366

How does Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) present?

Alternating diarrhea/ constipationHistory of stressNo abnormalities on colonoscopy

367

What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob?

Prion induced disease, death within 1 year, post cornea transplant

368

What bug causes Acute Bacterial Endocarditis?

Staphylococcus aureus (attacks healthy valves)

369

What are the spore forming Gram-positive bacteria?

BacillusClostridium

370

What is the function of B-HCG?

Maintains Corpus Luteum, sensitizes TSH receptors to make body hyperthyroid (to raise BMR)

371

What disease has Iridocyclitis?

Juvenile TA

372

What is the Rapid Acting Insulin drug?

Regular Insulin

373

What are the Class IB antiarrhythmic?

Lidocaine, Mexiletine, Tocainide

374

What is Sarcoma Botryoides?

Vaginal CA, looks like a ball of grapes

375

What is Hidradenoma?

Sweat gland cysts

376

What is Variable Deceleration?

Cord Compression

377

What is a Traction Diverticulum?

Out pouch between the UES and LES

378

What are the adverse of Methyldopa?

Sedation and Hemolytic Anemia(+) Coombs test

379

What is Intellectualization?

Act like a "know it all" to avoid feeling situational emotions, gets all information available to be over-informed

380

What bugs cause Monocytosis?

"STELS"S - SyphilisT - TBE - EBVL - ListeriaS - Salmonella

381

What is Spina bifida occulta?

Covered by skin with a tuft of hair

382

What is PKU?

No Phe -> Tyr (via decreased Tetrahydrobiopterin Cofactor or decreased Phe Hydroxylase)NutraSweet (Aspartame) sensitivitymental retardationpaleblond hairblue eyesmusty odor

383

What is Wright's Stain?

Detects nucleated fetal RBC in mom's vagina

384

What is Hemophilia A?

Defective Factor VIII (<40% Activity)Bleed into cavities (head, abd, etc)

385

What hepatitis B labs indicate infectious state?

HBeAg+

386

What organ has the highest AVO2 Difference at rest?

heart

387

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Pompous, no empathy, thinks they deserve everything

388

What does a Carboxylase do?

Transfers CO2 groups with the help of Biotin