Flashcards in Complete Deck Part 1 Deck (388):
When should Intercourse be avoided during Pregnancy?
Cervical dilation, placenta previa, premature labor, vaginal bleeding, ruptured membranes, genital herpes
What is Type 2 RTA?
Proximal RTA: bad Carbonic Anhydrase, lost all HCO3-
What is Heavy Chain Disease?
IgA and Multiple Myeloma of the GI tract
What is Nihilism?
Feeling of "life is meaningless"
What is Forward Typing?
Uses Antibodies to detect Antigens
What is associated with Vibrio Vulnificus?
Raw Oyster - common in workers shucking the oysters, cellulitis in swimmer's cuts
What is the MOA of Propranolol, Timolol?
B1 and B2 Blockers
What is Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease?
Mouth ulcersWill not eat or drinkPalm and sole rash caused by Coxsackie A
What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?
Simple (aware), complex (not aware)
What is an Omphalocele?
Intestines protrude out of the umbilicus covered by peritoneum
What is Clanging?
Words that sound alike
What is exudate?
Effusion of mostly proteinToo much protein: Will have ---Purulent (from Bacteria),Hemorrhagic (from trauma, CA, PE)Fibrinous (from collagen vascular disease), Granulomatous (non-bacterial)
What are the Mimetic drugs?
What is Lewy Body Dementia?
Stiff with visual hallucinations
What type of problem is there if serum Ca2+ and Serum PO4- change in same directions?
This is a secondary problem
What is the Pool Test?
Fluid in the vagina
What are the indications for Odansetron?
Control vomiting in patients undergoing chemo therapy and postoperatively
What is Kd?
Concentration of drug that binds 50% of receptors
What is associated with H. Aegyptius?
Swollen eyeball with pus
What is Overflow Incontinence?
Cannot completely empty bladder
How does Gonorrhea present?
Palmar pustules, arthritis/joint pain, urethral discomfor
What makes Achalasia unique?
Decreased Peristalsis and increased LES pressure
What is the MOA of Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine?
Sympathomimetic alpha-agonistsnon-prescription nasal decongestants
Where does DHT come from?
Testicles at puberty
What is Intraductal Papilloma?
Bleeding from the nippleMost common Breast CA
How does temporal arteritis present?
Pain with chewing, blind in one eye
What diseases have PIE syndrome?
Aspergillus, Loeffler's, Churg-Strauss
What is associated with Fusobacterium?
Painful mouth ulcers, gum pus, Vincent's angina
What is the MOA of ACE inhibitors?
Inhibits conversion of Ang I to Ang II, decreases Ang II
What is Central (neurogenic) diabetes insipidus?
Brain not making or producing enough ADH
What is Arnold-Chiari?
Foramen Magnum obstruction
What is 1st-order kinetics?
Constant drug percentage metabolism over time depends on drug concentration (rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration)
What does Vit B2 do?
Clues for atypical pneumonia?
Atypical pneumonia: prolonged illness, low fever, usually >40 y/oX-ray: diffuse, H. Influenza, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia
What does giving DDAVP during the Water deprivation tests tell you?
>50% increase (central complete DI),10-50% increase (central partial DI),<10% (psychogenic polydipsia),no change (nephrogenic DI)
What will you see with Alpha Thalassemia?
Seen in African Americans and Asian Americans (Chromosome 16- deletion)
What are the simple Gram Negative Bugs?
They lack Lipopolysaccharides,"Simple HE"H - H. InfluenzaE - E. Coli
What is a Neutrophil?
The Phagocyte (it has Antimicrobials, most abundant)
What is the MOA of Glucocorticoids?
Decrease production of Leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and expression of COX-2
What is Transference?
Patient views doctor as parent
Where is the most common site of a Clavicle fracture due to birth?
Middle third of the Clavicle
What are the indications for Niacin?
Decrease LDL and TriglyceridesStrong increase HDL
What is Perseveration?
Keeps repeating the same words
What does the parathyroid cells secrete?
What is associated with Actinomyces?
Face Fistulas, Sulfur Granules
What is a Rolling Hiatal Hernia?
Bowel Protruded through a defect in the Diaphragm. This can strangulate the bowel and can cause Atelectasis
What is Mesenteric Ischemia?
Abdominal pain of of proportion to physical exam
What is the MOA of Diazoxide?
K+ channel opener, hyperpolarizes and relaxes smooth muscle
What is Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis?
Anti-smooth muscle antibody (20-50%), bile ducts are scarred from inflammation, there is beading and onion skinning, it's associated with UC and P-ANCA (80%)
What does the viral load tell you?
Progression of HIV
Which enlarged lymph nodes are most likely malignant?
Supraclavicular, Epitrochlear (above the elbow), inguinal
What is Velamentous Cord Insertion?
Fetal vessels insert between chorion and amnion
What is Common Variable Immuno. Def?
Young adults with B cells that do not work
What are the Indications for Oxytocin?
Induces labor and Controls uterine hemorrhage
What does Mg2+ do?
PTH and kinase cofactor
What are the risk factors for Lung CA?
Smoking, Radon, second hand smoke, pneumoconiosis (except Anthracosis)
What is the Adverse Effect for first generation Sulfonylureas?
Disulfiram like effects
What is Multiple Myeloma?
Multiple osteolytic lesionsIncreased IgG and kappa light chainsRouleaux formation seen on slide
Clues for Typical pneumonia?
Typical pneumonia: short illness, high fever, usually >40 y/o, X-ray: one lobe, Streptococcus Pneumonia
What is Polycythemia Vera?
Hematocrit (Hct) >60% Decreased EPO, Budd-ChiariPruritis after bathing
What is the MOA of Mimetics?
What is Ascending Cholangitis?
Common bile duct infection due to stones
What does Growth Hormone (GH) do?
Stimulates growth, sends Somatomedin to growth plates, Gluconeogenesis by proteolysis
What is Anderson's?
Branching enzyme deficiency, long chains of glycogen
What is the Sympathetic System?
Fight -or- Flight, speeds stuff up
What is a Double Footling Breech?
Two feet sticking outside the cervical OS
What vessel has the thickest layer of smooth muscle?
What is Competitive Inhibition?
Fights for active site, no change in Vmax, potency decreases
What does blood type O tell you?
They have no antigens (Universal donor)
What does high WBC and B Cells tell you?
What are the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Energy State?
Skin: dryNails: BrittleHair: AlopeciaLow Bone Marrow: SuppressedVasculature: Endothelium breaks downLungs: Infection / SOBKidney: PCT effecfted firstGI: N/V/DBladder: Decreased toneSperm: DecreasedGerm Cells: Predisposed to cancerBreasts: AtrophicEndometrium: Amenorrhea
What diseases are cause by the Ixodes Ticks?
Lyme Disease - bull's eye lesionBabesiosis - Hemolytic AnemiaEhrlichiosis - puncture near eye
What does a Dehydrogenase do?
Catalyzes Oxidation-Reduction reactions (gaining or losing an electron)
What is Unconjugated Bilirubin?
Fat soluble and indirect Bilirubin
What is a transition?
Changes one purine to another purine
What is Crigler-Najjar Type I?
Unconjugated bilirubin buildupNewborn or infantsNo UDP-GTPhenobarbital yields no change
What organ has the highest AVO2 difference after excercise?
What are the bugs that cause gastroenteritis within 8 hours of eating the preformed toxin?
Staph Aureus (potato salad)Clostridium Perfringens (holiday turkey/ham)Bacillus Cereus (fried rice syndrome)
What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?
From the lung, breast, and skin, present at the White-Grey Junction
What is Polyhydramnios?
Too much amniotic fluid (baby can't swallow)
What is the function of GnRH?
Stimulates release of LH & FSH
What are the risk factors for Esophageal / Gastric CA?
Smoking, alcohol and nitrates
What is Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?
Gradual or acute separation of the proximal femoral growth plate with femur head slipping off femoral neck and rotating into inferior-posterior position. Most common during puberty and more in overweight individuals, present with a limp and pain recurring often to the kneeLimited hip internal rotation and outward rotation of lump with hip flexionx-ray: epiphyseal displacement
FEV1/FVC in Restrictive lung disease
Normal or elevated
What has Waxy Casts?
Chronic Renal Failure
What are the only Gram-negative diplococci?
How does a VIPoma present?
What are the indications for the Class IB antiarrhythmic?
Decrease AP duration, acute ventricular Arrhythmias, local anesthesia
What defines Diarrhea?
>200 grams of stool per day
What defines constipation?
Less than 3 bowel movements per week
What defines ALL?
0-15 year old males, bone pain, + PAS stain and +TdT. CALLA antigen positiveT (12;21)
What is the MOA of Class IB antiarrhythmic?
Na+ channel blocker
What is a Duodenal Ulcer?
Pain 20-30 minutes after eating, relieved with food, caused by H. Pylori infection 80-90% of the time and weight gain
What is a Female Pseudohermaphrodite?
XX with LOW 21-OHase and HIGH Testosterone
What are the adverse effects of Acid Resins?
Tastes bad and causes GI discomfortbile decreases absorption of fat soluble vitaminscholesterol gallstones
What is Hurler's?
Alph-L-Iduronidase deficiencyworse formGargoylismCorneal cloudingaccumulation of Heparin and Dermatan Sulfate
What are the indications for fibrates?
Strong decrease of triglyceridesslight decrease of LDLslight increase in HDL
What are the classifications of MHC-2?
HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR
What is Cori's?
Debranching, a-1,6 glucosidase enzyme deficiencyshort branches of glycogenmilder form of von Gierke with normal lactate levelslimit-dextrin's accumulate
How does Choanal Atresia Present?
Baby turns blue with feeding, pinks up when breast of bottle is removed (blocked nasal passages)
What is the job of the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?
Reabsorb Glucose, Amino Acids, Salt, Bicarb. >60-80% Reabsorption occurs here
What is Bronchiectasis?
Bad breath, purulent sputum, and hemoptysis
What electrolytes does the low volume state have?
Increased total Na+ (NET)Decreased serum Na (dilution effect)Decreased serum K+Increased serum pH
In what layers does a pseudo aortic aneurysm occur?
Intima and media layers
Who makes the Syncytiotrophoblast?
Mom and baby production of HCG and HPL
What is Metorrhagia
Bleeding or spotting in btwn periods
How does Spastic Colon present?
Intermittent severe cramps
What is selective IgG2 Deficiency?
Seen in patients with recurrent encapsulated infections
What diseases have respiratory acidosis?
Obstructive lung diseases
What is Prinzmetal's angina?
Coronary Artery Spasm
What does high WBC and High PMN's tell you?
Stress demargination. (Stress response - post trauma)
What causes a Cleft Palate?
Maxillary shelves did not fuse
What is Rouleaux formation?
Seen in Multiple Myeloma (Stacked coin look)
What is Neologisms?
What is Nephrotic Kidney Disease?
Lostbasement membrange chargeProteinuria >3.5hypercoagulablelipiduria
What does a Phosphatase do?
Removes Phosphate from substrate
What bug loves the parietal lobe?
What bug is associated with Cat Scratch?
What is Selective IgA Deficiency?
Seen in transfusion, anaphylaxis, and mucus membrane infections
What is the Trough level?
2 hours before next dose (too high - give less often)
What is VHL?
Predisposes individuals to bnign and malignant tumors, AVM in the head, and retina (AD inheritance in Chromosome 3)
What causes a Cleft Lip?
Medial nasal prominence did not fuse
What is the MOA of Reserpine?
Prevents the storage of monoamines in synaptic vesicle
What are the 3 tests used to screen for HIV?
ELISA: Detects IgG Ab to p24 AgWestern Blot: ProteinsPCR: Detects Virus (used in babies)
What is Materninty Blues?
Postpartum crying and irritability
What are the inidications for PPIs?
Peptic ulcer, gastritis, mid-esophageal Reflux and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
What are the Ca2+ channel blockers?
What is Conn's Syndrome?
High Aldosterone (primary tumor), Cpatopril test makes it worse, and increase's secretin hormone
What color is stool with a Lower GI Bleed?
Bright Red Blood (Hematochezia)
What is Type 5 Hypderlipidemia?
Defective enzyme and receptor (C-II) Elevated VLDL and ChylomicronsAssociated with DM
What is the RBC lifespan when there is a problem?
60-90 days (same time as the shelf life of blood bank units)
What sound radiates to the back?
What is the MOA of Prazosin?
Alpha 1-Blocker, vasodilation, decreases TPR
What is Sandhoff's?
Hexosaminidase A/B deficiency
What is the MOA of Octreotide (Synthetic analog of Somatostatin)?
Decreases release of GH, Gastrin, CCK, Carcinoid, VUP, Glucagon and Insulin
How is Smallpox different from Chickenpox?
Smallpox is on the face, same stage of development and fever
What is Diffusion?
From high to low concentration No ATP
What are the Fibrates?
Gemfibrozil, Clofibrate, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate
What is Anthracosis?
Coal workers, extensive fibrosis
What is Conduct Disorder?
Younger than 18 y/o with traits of antisocial disorder: aggressive, disregard for authority/rules, no sense of guilt/remorse, harms animals, illegal activity "bite is worse than bark". Behavioral therapy and antipsychotic
What are the names of the B vitamins?
"The Rich Never Lie about Panning Pyrite Filled Creeks"Vit B1 = ThiamineVit B2 = RiboflavinVit B3 = NiacinVit B4 = Lipoic acidVit B5 = Pantothenic acidVit B6 = PyridoxineVit B7 = BiotinVit B9 = FolateVit B12 = Cobalamin
What 5 bugs cause heart block infections?
"Don't TeLL Chaga"D- DiphtheriaT- Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi)L- LegionellaL- Lyme DiseaseC- Chagas Disease (Whipple's)
What is a Complete Abortion?
Cervix is closed, no fetal remnants, check B-HCG level
What is a "Blue Bloater"?
What are the Indications for ACE inhibitors?
HTN, CHF, post MI and vasodilation
What is the MOA osmotic Laxatives?
Provide osmotic load to draw water outLactulose treats Hepatic encephalopathy: gut flora degrades it into metabolites (lactic acid and acetic acid) that promote Nitrogen excretion as NH4+
What is the treatment for hypercholesterolemia?
What are the adverse effects of Minoxidil?
Hypertrichosis and Pericardial Effusion
What are the adverse effects of adenosine?
flushing, hypotension, and chest pain very short acting
What are the Glucocorticoid drugs?
Hydrocortisone, Triamcinolone, Dexamethasone, Prednisone, Beclomethasone
Adrenal medulla tumor in adults, they will have five P's: Palpitations, Perspiration, Pallor, Pressure (HTN), and Pain (headache)
What is Byssinosis?
Cotton workers, textile workers
What is Chediak Higashi?
Lazy Leukocyte Syndrome(Lysosomes are slow to fuse around bacteria)
What is Korsakoff Psychosis?
Alcoholic Thiamine deficiency. Presents with confusion, Opthalmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss, confabulation and personality changeTx: Vit B1
What type of Kidney Stones have Coffin-Lid Crystals?
Triple Phosphate (Struvite)
What is the difference between carotid body and carotid sinus?
Carotid Body: ChemoreceptorCarotid Sinus: Baroreceptor
What is Meconium?
Green baby poop (first poop)
What does Insulin do?
Pushes glucose into cells and K+ follows
What causes Granuloma Inguinale?
What is the MOA of Carvedilol?
Alpha and B-Blocker
What is the MOA of Levothyroxine (T4)/Triiodothyronine (T3)?
What is Anisocytosis?
RBC's with different sizes
What is Pain Disorder?
Prolonged pain not explained by physical causes
What causes Congenital Blindness?
What is Plummer-Vinson Syndrome?
Esophageal webs, Iron-deficiency anemia, dysphagia
What is Neurofibromatosis?
Cafe' au laut spots (hyperpigmentation)Peripheral nerve tumors, axillary frecklesType 1: Von Recklinghausen's-- Chromosome 17, peripheral, optic glioma, Lisch nodules, scoliosisType 2: Acoustic Neuroma, Central, Chromosome 22, cataracts, bilateral deafness
What is associated with Strep Viridans, Strep Mutans, and Strep Salivarius?
Subacute bacterial Endocarditis, green pigment, Alpha HemolyticStrep Mutans - dental cariesStrep Salivarius - cold agglutinates
What are the adverse effects of Dextromethorphan?
Mild opioid effect so mild abuse potential
What is the most common cause of Epididymitis?
Chlamydia Trachomatis, N. Gonorrhea, E. Coli
What is Charcot's Triad?
Jaundice, Fever (usually with rigors) and RUQ pain
What is seen with Manganese deficiency?
Lose xanthine oxidase function
What is Psychogenic Polydipsia?
Drinking a lot of water, diluting Na in blood
What is seen in newborns with Syphilis in utero infection?
Rhages (lip fissue), Saber shin legs (anterior bowing of the tibia), Hutchinson's Razor teeth,Mulberry Molars
What is the afferent arteriole's job?
Monitor pressure (JG cells-Renin release)
How do you detect a Pulmonary Embolus?
Tachypneaincreased V/Q scanECG may show signs of right heart strain or acute cor pulmonale in cases of Large Pes - large S wave in lead I, a large Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead IIIS1Q3T3
What is a frameshift mutation?
Insert or delete any number of bases, not divisible by 3, causes misreading of all downstream nucleotides
What is the Isoelectric Point?
The pH at which there is no net charge
What does an opening snap tell you?
Mitral or Tricuspid Stenosis
What is the rate-limiting enzyme in FA synthesis?
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC)
What does a Phosphorylase do?
Adds inorganic Phosphate to substrate, No ATP used
What is associated with EHEC?
Hemorrhagic = renal failure
What are the Bile acid resins?
What is associated with Enterococcus?
UTI, infective Endocarditis post GI/GU procedure
What is Voyeurism?
Watching other people without their permission
What does CCK (Cholecystokinin) do?
Stimulates bile release and gallbladder contraction, inhibits gastric motility (closes sphincters), and made by I-cell of duodenum
What does LDL do?
It carries Cholesterol (only one to do this)
What is TORCH Infection?
Toxoplasmosis: Hydrocephalus with generalized intracranial calcification and choriogenesis.Others= HIV, Syphilis, Varicella, B-19HIV= Most infected are asymptomatic, clinical symptoms-- Lymphadenopathy/HepatosplenomegalySyphilis= Osteochondritis and Peridotites; skin rash on palms and soles, snufflesVaricells = Pneumonia (neonatal); limb hypoplasia, cutaneous scar, seizure, MRB-19 = Hydrops FetalisRubella = Cataracts, deafness and heart defects, blueberry muffin spotsCMV = Microcephaly with periventricular calcification, petechia with thrombocytopenia, sensorineural hearing lossHerpes = 1st week: Pneumonia/shock2nd week: Skin vesicles, keratoconjunctivitis3rd week: Acute Meningoencephalitis
What does Dopamine (DA) do?
Inhibits Prolactin (PRL) release
What is Bipolar II?
Depression and Hypomania (no psychosis)
What is the Capacitation reaction?
Allow binding btwn sperm & egg
What is associated with Klebsiella Pneumonia?
Alcoholics, Currant Jelly Sputum, UTI, Lung fissures
What is the Indication for Demeclocycline?
What lysosomal diseases have a Gargoyle face?
What is a Footling Breech/Incomplete breech?
Butt down. Thigh flexed, one toe is sticking out of the cervical OS
What is the MOA of Glitazones/Thiazolidinedione's?
Increases Insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Transaction modulation by Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma in Nuclus
What makes B-HCG?
What does erythropoietin (EPO) do?
Makes RBC's (prolong RBC life)
What is Erythrasma?
Rash in the skin folds, coral-red under Wood's Lamp
What do stomach chief cells secrete?
What are the Adverse Effects of Sulfasalazine?
Malaise, nausea, Sulfonamide toxicity, reversible Oligospermia
What are the indications for Class IC antiarrhythmic?
Ventricular tachy progressing to V. fib, last resort
What is Tracheomalacia?
Soft cartilage and stridor since birth
What is the MOA of Sulfasalazine?
A combination of sulfapyridine (antibacterial) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (anti-inflammtory) activated by colonig bacteria
What are the Indications for Biguanides?
First line therapy in Type 2 DM
What is Choledocholithiasis?
Gallstone obstructs the bile duct
What bug loves the frontal lobe?
What is a Platelet?
The clotter (has no nuclei and smallest cells)
How do I know the patient has a Vitamin E Deficiency?
Increased free radical damage, hemolytic anemia, ataxia gait, impaired position and vibration sense
What is Pseudohermaphrodite?
external genitalia problem
What is Niemann-Pick?
Sphingomyelinase deficiencyAreflexiaHepatosplenomegalyfoam cells (Lipid Laden macrophages)
What is Efficacy?
Maximal effect drug can produce regardless of dose (lower w/ non-competitive antagonist)
What are the Indications for Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors?
NIDDM. (Type 2)
What type of kidney stones have hexagonal crystals?
What does Oxytocin do?
Milk letdown and uterine contractions
What is sinusitis?
Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, tooth pain worsens upon bending forward
What is duodenal Atresia?
Bilious vomiting with first feeding, double bubble sign on x-ray, associated with Downs Syndrome
What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I?
"Wermer's" 3 P's: Pancreas, Pituitary, Parathyroid adenoma
What GI diseases has a RLQ Sausage mass?
What is a Dohle Body?
PMN Leukocytosis(caused by infections, steroids, tumor)
What does an ejection click tell you?
Aortic or Pulmonic Stenosis
What is associated with Clostridium Perfringens?
Holiday ham and turkey - left out on counter and Clostridium jumps on and waits, enterotoxin causes Gastroenteritis, food gets reheated - bug is loving life, DM patients get Gas Gangrene due to the alpha toxin, also found in soil and feces
What Is Lesch-Nyhan?
HGPRT deficiencygrout neuropathyself-mutilationDystoniaXLRPrange sand crystals in diaper
What is a Bite Cell?
Unstable Hb inclusions (seen in G6PD Deficiency)
What is Antisocial Personality Disorder?
Lie, cheat, steal, destroy property, impulsive without remorse, illegal activity, aggressive towards others. Must be over 18 y/o
What are the Adverse Effects of Odansetron?
Headache, constipation, dizziness
What does Southwestern blot detect?
DNA-binding Proteins (combines south and western blots)
What does a paradoxical S-2 split tell you?
Aortic Stenosis or LBBB
What is Pre-Eclampsia?
Ischemia to the placenta causes HTN greater than 140/90
What is the MOA of FIbrates?
Upregulate LPL, increase triglyceride clearance
What is the Crystallization reaction?
Wall formed after one sperm enters to prevent polyspermy
What does auscaltation of wheezing tell you?
Intrathoracic narrowing (seen on expiration on x-ray)
What are Ideas of Reference?
Believes the media is monitoring you
What does the Citrate shuttle do?
FA transport out of the mitochondria
What conditions cause weight gain?
Obesity, Hypothyroidism, Depression, Cushing's, Anasarca
What does Vit B5 do?
Part of Acetyl-CoA, no known diseases
What is Spina bifida aperta?
Has opening (High AFP)
What is HELLP Syndrome?
Hepatic injury causing:H- HemolysisEL- Elevated Liver EnzymeLP- Low Platelets
What is the MOA of Class IA antiarrhythmic?
Na+ channel blocker
What is the fucntion of LH (Luteinizing hormone)?
Stimulates Testosterone release from the testis, Androgens and Progesterone release from the ovary
What is the Parasympathetic System?
Rest and digest, slows stuff down
When do you see silent thyroiditis?
What are the adverse effects of Reserpine?
What is associated with Paseurella Multocida?
Cat/Dog saliva => Cellulits with lymphadenitis
What is Gigantism?
Childhood form of Acromegaly
What form of Estrogen is highest at Menopause?
E1: Estrone (Made by Fat)E2: Estradiol (Made by the ovaries)E3: Estriol (Made by the placenta)
What are the adverse effects of Losartan?
Fetal renal toxicityHyperkalemia
What is pulse pressure?
Systolic minus diastolic pressure
What is Addison's disease?
Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex, causes hyperpigmentation (looks tan), and increased ACTH
What is the muscarinic antagonist drug used for asthma?
What is the function of Prolactin (PRL)?
What is associated with Chlamydia Trachomatis?
Neonatal in-turned eyelashes, Corneal Ulcers
How do I know the patient has a Vitamin D Deficiency?
Rickets (children), Osteomalacia (adults)
What is Zenker's Diverticulum?
Cough up undigested food from above the UES, Halitosis, motor dysfunction problem
What is a Male Hermaphrodite?
XY with no MIF
What is Dissociative Fugue?
No past memory at all, even if they see someone from the past - they have no ideaTravel to a new place, usually due to trauma
What is an Allograft?
Human to human transplant
What are the indications for the Class IA antiarrhythmic?
Increase AP duration, icnrease effective refractory period (ERP) QT interval, affect reentrant and ectopic SVT and ventricular tachy
What is Ovarian Hyperstimulation syndrome?
Weight gain and enlarged ovaries after clomiphene use for infertility
What is the first generation Sulfonylureas?
Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide?
What is the difference between Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia's?
Myeloid: increased RBC, WBC, platelets, macrophages (decreased Luymphoid cells) and bone marrow biopsyLymphoid: increased NK, T, B cells (decreased Myeloid cells) and do lymph node biopsy
What are the indications for corticosteroids?
Chronic asthma, COPD
What are the acidic amino acids?
What is the Indication for GLP-1 Analogs?
NIDDM. (Type 2)
What does Fremitus, Egophony and Bronchophony tell you?
Consolidation (pathognomonic for pneumonia)
What diseases have high eosinophils?
"NAACP"N - Neoplasm (Lymphoma)A - Allergy/ AsthmaA - Addison's disease (no cortisol -relative eosinophilia)C - Collagen Vascular diseaseP - Parasites
What does "Penia" tell you?
Low Levels - (Usually due to virus or drugs)
What happens with Rubella infections in utero?
Cataracts, hearing loss, PDA, "blueberry muffin" rash (Rash on face that spreads to trunk)
What is a complete molar pregnancy?
2 Sperm and no egg (46, XX) both are paternal, bunch of graps, dad eats grapes, no embryo(GROSS!)
Where does Testosterone come from?
Adrenal gland and testicles
What antibody shows past Hep A infection?
What hepatitis B labs indicate recent immunization within >2/52wks?
What is Thought Blocking?
What is Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis?
T-cell defect against Candida Albicans and chronic fatigue
What is Budd-Chiari
Hepatic vein obstruction
What does "Cythemia" tell you?
What are the degrees of Vaginal Lacerations?
1st Degree: Skin2nd Degree: Muscle3rd Degree: Anus4th Degree: Rectum
What are the Indications for GH?
GH deficiency in children, Turner syndrome, and Burn victims
What does a Kinase do?
Adds Phosphate group to substrate using ATP
What will Ranson's criteria tell you and what will you see at 48 hours?
Prognosis of Pancreatitis patients BUN >5 mg/dL (decreased RBF)Calcium <8mg/dL (saponification)HCT drops >10% (bleeding into pancreas)sequester > 6 liters of fluid (3rd spacing)Oxygen pO2 <60 mmHg (fluid/protein leak, leads to ARDS)base deficit >4 mEq/L (diarrhea due to no pancreatic enzymes)
What is Cushing's Triad?
HTN, Bradycardia, irregular breathing
What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?
Red rash with oily skin and dry flaky hairline, crusty lesion
What receptors do Steroid Hormones use?
Nuclear membrane receptors (except cortisol cytoplasmic receptor)
What is the MOA of Antileukotriene?
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor -> inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene -> prevents bronchoconstriction and inflammatory cell infiltrate
What lysosomal diseases have a cherry-red macula?
What is a Meduloblastoma?
Pseudorosettes compressing the brain, early morning vomiting
What antibody shows current Hep A infection?
What does Vit B3 do?
What are the essential amino acids?
Phynlalanine, Valine, Threonine(PVT)Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine(TIM)Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine(HALL)
What is the Dawn Phenomenon?
Morning hyperglycemia secondary to Growth Hormone
What is Hepatorenal Syndrome?
High urea from the Liver leads to: increased Glutaminase, Ammonia, GABA- Kidney shuts down
What is Nevus Flammeus?
Port Wine Stain - Permanent- Unilateral of face or neck- Vascular malformation - Sturge - Weber syndrome - Vasculitis- Mgt: Pulsed laser therapy
What defines CML?
30-50 y/o females t(9;22)Philadelphia Chromosomebcr-abl
What is a Kleihauer-Betke Test?
Detects percentage of fetal blood in maternal circulation (Dilution test)
What is Kallmann's Syndrome?
No GnRH and Anosmia. (They can't smell)
What are the aromatic amino acids?
Phe, Tyr, Trp
What structures have one-way valves?
Urethra and ejaculatory duct
How fast should fundal height change?
Uterus grows 1 cm/week
What GI disease has an Abrupt Cut off on X-Ray?
What is associated with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa?
Otitis Externa, Ecthyma Gangrenosum, loves rubber, Whirlpool Folliculitis, exotoxin (ADP ribosylates EF-2)
What is normal blood loss during a Vaginal Deliver?
What is Achalasia?
Increased LES Pressure (no Auerbach's Plexus), Bird's Beak on X-Ray and also seen in Chagas Disease
What are the most common causes of Oligohydramnios?
Abdominal Muscle Problem: Prune Belly Renal Agenesis: Potters Syndrome
What causes anterior leg bowing?
What are the Intravascular Hemolytic Anemias?
IgM G6PD deficiencycold autoimmune
What are the adverse effects of the Class IA antiarrhythmic?
Quinidine: CinchonismProcainamide: Torsades de Pointes
What does Trypsin cut?
What is a Dandy Walker malformation?
No cerebellum, distended 4th and lateral ventricles
What is Synesthesia?
Where is a Bochdalek Hernia?
Occur more commonly on the posterior left side (diaphragm), most common congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH)
What is Menetrier's Disease?
Loss of protein through the rugal folds. Causes generalized edema. CMV association in children and H. Pylorus in Adults
What is a True Hermaphrodite?
Internal genitalia problem (has both sexes)
What gives urine its yellow color?
Urobilinogen being oxidized to urobilin
What is a Schistocyte?
Broken RBC (seen in DIC and artificial heart vlaves and others)
What does vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) do?
Inhibits secretin, motilin, and CCK, and opens Sphincters
What are the adverse effects of Digoxin?
Cholinergic, ECG: icnrease PR, decrease QT worsened by renal failureQuinidine displaces Digoxin from tissue binding sites
What is Amnesia?
Can't recall important facts
What is Type A gastritis?
Upper GI bleed, autoimmune (anti-parietal cell antibodies), Atrophic / Achlorhydria and increased risk for adenocarcinoma (body & fundus region of the stomach)
What organ has the highest AVO2 difference after a meal?
What is Inflammatory Carcinoma?
Infiltrates Lymphatics, pulls on Cooper's Ligaments "Peau d'Orange"
What is associated with Propionibacterium acnes?
Acne, Progesterone => Propionic acid
What type of immunity does TH2 provide?
Enhances humoral immunity
What is Multiple Myeloma?
Male >40 with lower back painSerum M protein (IgG)Bence-Jones Proteins in the urineRouleaux formationPunched out lesions on x-ray
What is the function of TRH?
Stimulates TSH release
What are some causes of G6PD Deficiency?
Sulfa drugs, mothballs, fava beans, sudden drop in Hb
What is Erythema Toxicum?
White wheal on red area rash has Eosinophils
What is Pseudocyesis
Fake pregnancy with all the signs and symptoms
How does Herpes present?
Primary: Painful grouped vesicles on red baseSecondary: Painful solitary lesion
What is squamous cell CA?
Seen in smokers, high PTH and Ca2+
What is the cell-mediated immune response?
T-cells and Macrophages patrol the tissues looking for non-bacteria
What is a Thyrotrope?
What is seen / causes in Aplastic Anemia?
What is the function of CRH?
Stimulates ACTH release
What is the Gram Positive Capsule?
What does Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) and Thymosin do?
Help T-cells mature
What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Heme synthesis?
What is Borderline Personality Disorder?
"Perpetual Teenager", splitting (love/hate), projection, acting out, self-mutiliation, unstable relationships, impulsive
What does Rh+ tell you?
Has D Antigen
Can you die during ETOH withdrawal?
What Kidney complications can Lithium cause to the person taking the drug?
Destroy the collecting ducts V2 aquaporin receptors, causing Nephrogenic DI
What is a Biophysical Profile (BPP)?
By US look for:Non-stress testAFIFetal heart toneFetal ActivityBreathing Movement
What do you see in Grave's Disease?
Exophthalmos, Pretibial myxedema, anti-TSH receptor antibodies
What bug loves the hippocampus?
What diseases have metabolic acidosis?
"MUDPILES" and diarrhea
What unstable angina?
Pain at rest (transient clots MCC)
What is a Pinealoma?
Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian rhythms lead to precocious puberty
What does THF donate methyl groups for?
What is the MOA of Misoprostol?
PGE1 analog, increase production and secretion of gastric mucous barrier, decreased acid production
What is Lichen Sclerosis?
Paper like vulva, itching, CA risk
What is an Eosinophil?
The parasite destroyer and allergy inducer
What is seen in Paroxysmal Cold Auto Autoimmune?
Bleeds after cold exposure Donath-Landsteiner Ab
What does the E Ag tell you?
What is Intussusception?
Currant Jelly Stool, Stacked Coin Enema, sausage shaped mass and knees to chest for comfort
What is Type 1 Hyperlipidemia?
Defective Liver Lipoprotein Lipase (chylomicrons are elevated)
What is Uterus Rupture?
Tearing sensation, halt of delivery
What is associated with (PCP) Pneumocystis Carinii pnemonia?
AIDS and preemies, rusty sputum, silver stains the lungs, increased LDH, Treat with steroids
Why do pregnant women get Anemia?
Due to the dilution effect: RBC rises 30%, but body volume rises 50%
What is associated with Vibrio Cholera?
Rice Water Diarrhea, ADP- Ribosylates Gs = High cAMP, Turning the on... on
What vessel has the highest compliance?
What is the smallest amino acid?
What is a point mutation?
Changes one base
What are Esophageal Varices?
Due to Portal HTN, vomit large amounts of blood when they rupture
What is MGM?
BM spikes, granular/linear supepithelial spikes and closes
What type of kidney stones have Rosette Crystals?
What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia II (2A)?
"Sipple's" Pheochromocytoma, Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Parathyroid Adenoma. (tumor marker RET)
What are Spur Cells / Acanthocytes?
Lipid bilayer disease
How does Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) present?
Alternating diarrhea/ constipationHistory of stressNo abnormalities on colonoscopy
What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob?
Prion induced disease, death within 1 year, post cornea transplant
What bug causes Acute Bacterial Endocarditis?
Staphylococcus aureus (attacks healthy valves)
What are the spore forming Gram-positive bacteria?
What is the function of B-HCG?
Maintains Corpus Luteum, sensitizes TSH receptors to make body hyperthyroid (to raise BMR)
What disease has Iridocyclitis?
What is the Rapid Acting Insulin drug?
What are the Class IB antiarrhythmic?
Lidocaine, Mexiletine, Tocainide
What is Sarcoma Botryoides?
Vaginal CA, looks like a ball of grapes
What is Hidradenoma?
Sweat gland cysts
What is Variable Deceleration?
What is a Traction Diverticulum?
Out pouch between the UES and LES
What are the adverse of Methyldopa?
Sedation and Hemolytic Anemia(+) Coombs test
What is Intellectualization?
Act like a "know it all" to avoid feeling situational emotions, gets all information available to be over-informed
What bugs cause Monocytosis?
"STELS"S - SyphilisT - TBE - EBVL - ListeriaS - Salmonella
What is Spina bifida occulta?
Covered by skin with a tuft of hair
What is PKU?
No Phe -> Tyr (via decreased Tetrahydrobiopterin Cofactor or decreased Phe Hydroxylase)NutraSweet (Aspartame) sensitivitymental retardationpaleblond hairblue eyesmusty odor
What is Wright's Stain?
Detects nucleated fetal RBC in mom's vagina
What is Hemophilia A?
Defective Factor VIII (<40% Activity)Bleed into cavities (head, abd, etc)
What hepatitis B labs indicate infectious state?
What organ has the highest AVO2 Difference at rest?
What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
Pompous, no empathy, thinks they deserve everything