Complete Deck Part 3 Flashcards Preview

Wolfpacc Clues Complete > Complete Deck Part 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Complete Deck Part 3 Deck (391):
1

What are the basic amino acids?

Lys, Arg, His

2

What does Vitamin D do?

Helps in calcium absorption from the GI tract

3

What is an Apt Test?

Detects HbF in the Vagina, detects baby's hemoglobin (Alkali denaturation test)

4

What is seen in Zinc deficiency?

Dysgeusia, anosmia, Poor wound healing

5

What cardiomyopathy has Pulsus Alternans?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

6

What is a Monocyte?

The destroyer - macrophage (has hydrolytic enzymes and a coffee bean nucleus)

7

How do I know the patient has a Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) Deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils, Neuropathy

8

What are the indications for Metoclopramide?

Diabetic and post-surgery gastroparesis

9

What is a Target Cell/ Codocyte?

These have less Hb (seen in Thalassemias or iron deficiency)

10

What is seen in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia?

They have low RBCs and double jointed thumbs

11

What is associated with Yersinia Pestis?

Rats & Flease = Bubonic Plague

12

What is cor-pulmonale?

Pulmonary HTN leads to Right ventricular failure

13

What is associated with EPEC?

Pathogenic = newborn diarrhea

14

What is Chlamydia?

Obligate intracellular bacteria. Can present asymptomatic or PID Cervicitis (yellow pus)Conjunctivitis

15

What do Clotting problems cause?

Bleeding into cavities

16

Waht is associated with S. Saprophyticus?

Female with UTI's (2nd cause), honeymooner's cystitis

17

What are the adverse effects of fibrates?

Myositis, hepatotoxicity (increase LFT's) cholesterol gallstones

18

What is Depersonalization Disorder?

"Out of Body" experiences, Deja Vu

19

What is the most common cause of death in the Low Energy State?

Heart Failure

20

What is assocaited with Campylobacter Jejuni?

Raw chicken and eggs, dog poop, bloody diarrhea, comma, "seagull" shaped buginactivated by gastric juice and can precipitate Guillain BarreTreat with Erythromycin

21

What are the adverse effects of 1st generation H1 blockers?

Sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-alpha-adrenergic

22

What do Chylomicrons do?

They take Triglycerides (TG) from GI to liver and endothelium

23

What diseases have high Monocytes (>15%)?

"STELS"Syphilis: chancre, rash, wartsTB: Hemoptysis, night sweatsEBV: Teen sick for a monthListeria: Sick babySalmonella: Food poisoning

24

What is Active Transport?

Goes against concentration gradientRequires ATP

25

What are the diastolic rumbling murmurs?

Tricuspid StenosisMitral Stenosis

26

What is Face Presentation?

Mentum Anterior preform forceps delivery

27

What is Zero-order kinetics?

Metabolism independent of concentration (rate of elimination is constant)

28

What is Mumps?

Parotitis (Red Stenson's Duct)

29

What does the Bulbourethral/ Cowper's Glands secrete?

Bicarb to neutralize lactobacilli, if sperm is too acidic. (Infertility until corrected)

30

What is Type and Cross?

Blood that is matched by blood type and cross-reacted with the patient's blood for rejection

31

How do you treat A1 Gestational DM?

Diet

32

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Glycogenolysis?

Glycogen Phosphorylase. Occurs in the Cytoplasm of Liver and Muscle

33

What bugs cause Loeffler Syndrome?

"NASSA"N - Necator AmericanusA - Ancylostoma DuodenaleS - SchistosomiasisS - StrongyloidesA - Ascaris Lumbricoides

34

What has Fat Casts?

Nephrotic Syndrome

35

What is Paget's disease of the Breast?

Rash and ulcer around the nipple, breast CA

36

What is the only Crescent Shaped Protozoa?

Giardia Lamblia

37

What produces Currant Jelly stool?

Intussusception

38

What is associated with R. Akari?

Mites

39

What are Braxton-Hicks Contractions?

Irregular contractions with closed cervix. (preparing for birth)

40

What is Krabbe's?

Galactocerebrosidase deficiencyperipheral neuropathyoptic atrophygloboid bodiesaccumulation of Galactocerebroside and Psychosine

41

What are the adverse effects of methylxanthines?

Cardiotoxicity, Neurotoxicity

42

How do I know the patienthas a Vitamin K Deficiency?

Bleeding, Loss of gamma-carboxylation

43

What is a Meningomyelocele?

Sacral pocket with meninges and nerves in it

44

What are the Adverse Effects of Osmotic Laxatives?

Diarrhea, dehydration, may be abused by bulimics

45

What is the color of fluid or a solid on X-ray?

White "radiopaque"

46

What is the MOA of a Growth Hormone?

Stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factors and gastric emptying

47

What is Ferning?

Estrogen crystallizes on slide. (Amniotic fluid)

48

What are the essential fatty acids?

Linolenic, Linoleic

49

What is Hunter's?

Iduronate Sulfatase deficiencymilder formXLRno corneal cloudingaggressive behaviorAccumulation of Heparin and Dermatan Sulfate

50

What does a Western blot detect?

Protein, "snoW, droP"

51

What are the four Painful Genital Lesions?

HerpesChancroid (It makes you cry... H. Ducreyi) Lymphogranuloma VenereumLymphogranuloma Inguinale

52

What are the indications for Bile Acid Resins?

Slightly increase HDL and triglyceridesDecrease LDL

53

What is Dubin-Johnson?

Defective Bilirubin storageBLACK LIVERIncreased conjugated bilirubin

54

Snowman-shape on x-ray?

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

55

What is the MOA of H2 blockers?

Reversible block of histamine H2 receptors to decrease H+ secretion by parietal cells

56

What are the Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors?

Acarbose and Miglitol

57

What is Early Deceleration?

Normal due to head compression

58

What is Hepatorenal Syndrome?

Build up of liver toxins that cause renal failure

59

What organ has the lower AVO2 difference?

Kidney

60

What bug causes multiple liver abscesses?

Entamoeba Histolytica

61

What is Conversion?

Neurological manifestations of internal conflict, indifferent to disability, blindness/mutism triggered by a stressor. Patient is unconcerned about his impairmentTx: Psychotherapy

62

What is a Xanthelasma?

Triglyceride build up and is seen under the eyes (Xanthoma subtype)

63

What are the indications for Prazosin?

Pheochromocytoma, HTN

64

What is Cystinuria?

Defect of AA transporter in PCT and GIm prevents reabsorption of Cysteine, Ornithine, Lysine, Arginine (COLA)Hexagonal (Cysteine) stones in urine (urinary Cyanide nitroprusside test is Dx)

65

What are the indications for antileukotriene?

Asthma, aspirin induced asthma

66

What is Regression?

Immature behavior, go back in development

67

What are the sounds made from diastolic murmurs?

Blowing and rumbling

68

what is the Central Nervous System?

Brain and spinal cord, Myelination by the oligodendrocytes

69

What is Laryngomalacia?

Epiglottis rolls in from side to side

70

Where does a Type A thoracic aortic dissection occur?

Ascending Aorta, (occurs in Cystic medial necrosis and Syphilis)

71

What diagnosis has primary hyperparathyroidism?

Parathyroid Adenoma

72

What does a mid-systolic click tell you?

MVP- Mitral valve prolapse

73

What is a Schwannoma?

CN-8 tumor, unilateral deafness

74

What does auscultation of stridor tell you?

Extrathoracic narrowing (seen on inspiration on X-Ray)

75

What is ADHD?

Over activity, short attention span, difficulty in school, must be identified in two different locations (home and school). Tx: First line- methylphenidate and dectroamphetamine; Second line- Atomoxetine (SNRI)

76

What are the indications for Sulfonylureas?

NIDDM (Type 2)

77

When is Beta HCG found in Urine?

2 weeks after fertilization

78

What does auscultation of crackles tell you?

Blowing collapsed alveoli open (restrictive lung disease)

79

What is a Xenograft?

1 species to another species (pig heart into humans)

80

What makes Esophageal Spasms Unique?

Increased Peristalsis

81

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Gluconeogenesis?

Fructose - 1,6 Bisphophatase

82

What is the most common cause of first trimester maternal death?

Ectopic pregnancy

83

What does Vit K do?

ClottingSynthesized by intestinal flora

84

What serum pH does emesis have?

Alkalotic because you vomit out HCl-

85

What is the MOA of coricosteroids?

Inhibits leukotriene synthesis -> reduces inflammation and leads to bronchodilation

86

What bugs can cause walking pneumonia?

"Come My Love for a Walk"0-2 mos: Chlamydia Pneumonia10-30 years old: Mycoplasma Pneumonia>40 years old: Legionella pneumoniaAIDS and PREMIES: Pnemonia Carinii

87

What is associated with R. Tsutsugamushi?

Chiggers (Mites) = Scrub Typhus

88

What is the MOA of Hexamethonium?

Nicotinic Ganglionic blocker

89

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in TCA Cycle?

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

90

What are the Gram Negative Capsules?

"Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules"S - SalmonellaK - KlebsiellaH - H. Influenza B (HiB)P - PseudomonasN - NeisseriaC - Citrobacter

91

What causes Cryoglobulinemia?

"I AM He"I - InfluenzaA - AdenovirusM - MycoplasmaH - Hepatitis B and C

92

What is the indication for muscarinic antagonist?

Asthma, COPD

93

What are the Adverse Effects of Octreotide?

Nausea, cramps, steatorrhea

94

What serum pH does diarrhea have?

Acidosis because stool has bicarb

95

What are the indications for adenosine?

Dx. and tx. of AV nodal arrhythmias

96

What is Word Salad?

Unrelated combinations of words

97

What are the Vasodilators?

Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Nifedipine, Verapamil, Nitroprusside, Diazoxide

98

What is Frotteurism?

Rubs penis against fully clothed women

99

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Urea cycle?

Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase-1 (CPS-1)

100

What are the Adverse Effects of PTU and Methimazole?

Agranulocytosis, skin rash and Aplastic Anemia

101

What is Molluscum Contagiosum

Flesh colored papules with a central dimple

102

What is the indication for Albuterol?

Acute exacerbation

103

What does Gastrin do?

Stimulates parietal cells to release intrinsic factor (IF) and H+

104

What is Turner's Syndrome (XO)?

High FSH, LOW E2, Ovarian Dysgenesis, Webbed Neck, Coarctation of the Aorta, Cystic Hydroma, bicuspid Aortic valve

105

What murmur has Pulsus Tardus?

Aortic stenosis

106

How do you predict a due date with Nagele's rule?

Subtract 3 mo. from LMP (last menstrual period)Add 7 days, if her cycle is 28 days (i.e: LMP Jan 7, 2016 would have an estimated date of Oct. 14, 2016)If her cycle is more than 28 days add 1 day for each extra day of the cycle

107

What is the Acrosomal reaction?

Sperm release enzymes to eat the Corona Radiata

108

Function of what cells is necessary for the action of Sulfonylureas?

Requires some islet cell function so drugs used less in Type 1 DM

109

What is Conjugated Bilirubin?

Water soluble and direct Bilirubin

110

What is the MOA of the Ca2+ blockers?

Decreases conduction velocity of the AV node, increases ERP and PR interval

111

What is associated with Legionella Pneumoniae?

Found in AC ducts, silver stains lung, CYEAPontiac Fever, Legionnaire'sPneumonia

112

What are the Megaloblastic Anemias?

Vitamin B-12 Deficiencyfolate deficiencyalcohol

113

What is Double Depression?

Depression followed by dysthymia

114

What is familial Hypocalciuria Hypercalcemia?

Patients with decreased calcium excretion

115

What are some causes of Cold Autoimmune?

MonoMycoplasma infectionAntibody (IgM) bind to RBC's membranecold temp and causes agglutination

116

What has Muddy Brown Casts?

Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)

117

What are the indications for Bosentan?

Pulmonary HTN

118

What is Circumstantiality?

Digresses but finally gets back to the point

119

What are the adverse effects of B-blockers?

Impotence, asthma, bradycardia, AV block, heart failure, sedation, sleep alterations

120

What are the Steroid Hormones?

Progesterone, Estradiol (E2), Testosterone, Cortisol, and Aldosterone

121

What is associated with Bacteroides Fragilis?

Post Op bowel abscess, grows in blood clots

122

Explain Restrictive Lung Disease:

Restrictive: Interstitial problem that causes trouble breathing in (small stiff lungs)Pulmonary Function Test's: FEV1/FVC greater than 0.8, decrease vital capacityABG: decreased pH, decreased PO2, decreased PcO2 (increased respiratory rate)Chest X-Ray: reticulonodular pattern, ground glass appearanceMost common cause of death is Cor-pulmonaleTreatment: PEEP ventilator, increased O2, increased respiratory time

123

When performing a high dose dex. Test, if positive...

Patient has a pituitary tumor

124

What does the Prostate Secrete?

The prostate HAZ it.H- HyaluronidaseA- Acid PhosphataseZ- Zinc

125

What are the Gram-negative exotoxins?

H. InfluenzaBordatella Pertussis

126

What is Meniere's Disease?

Same presentation as Labyrinthitis but is a chronic condition with remitting and relapsing episodes

127

How does Granuloma Inguinale present?

Spreading ulcer, Donovan bodies, due to Klebsiella Granulomatis (rod shaped), oval organism that can be seen in the Cytoplasms of Phagocytes or in tissue of people with grauloma inguinale

128

What are the Glitazones/Thiazolidinedione's drugs?

Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone

129

What is Concrete Thinking?

Can't interpret abstract proverbs, only sees the facts

130

Explain Obstructive Lung Disease:

Obstructive: Airway structure problem that causes trouble breathing out (mucus filled lungs)PFT's: FEV/FVC is less tha 0.8, increased RV; Reid index increased (thick airway)ABD: decreased pH, normal to low PO2, increased PCO2Most common cause of Death is BronchiectasisTreatment: ventilator to increase respiratory rate and expiratory time, increase oxygen only if needed

131

What is the MOA of Methyldopa?

Alpha 2 agonist = decreases peripheral resistance

132

What drugs cause Pulmonary Eosinophilia?

Nitrofurantoin and Sulfonamides

133

What is Hirschprungs Disease?

Failure of innervation to the rectum (No Auerbach's Plexus), lack of meconium passage in the newborn, Neural crest cell migration problem

134

What is the MOA of Guanethidine?

Interferes with norepinephrine release

135

What is pseudo-pseudo-hypoparathyroidsm?

G-Protein defect, and there is no calcium problem

136

What is Malingering?

Fake illness for monetary gain or getting out of jail, avoids medical treatmentTx: Supportive Psychotherapy

137

What does alpha one anti-trypsin do?

Inhibits Elastase

138

What GI disease has a String Sign on X-Ray?

Pyrloric Stenosis and Crohn's Disease

139

What is DiGeorge Syndrome?

No Thymus, inferior Parathyroid and low calcium

140

What is a Meningocele?

Sacral pocket with meninges in it

141

What does auscultation of rhonchi tell you?

Mucus in the airway (obstructive airway disease)

142

What is the indication for Osmotic Laxatives?

Constipation

143

What is Suppression?

Consciously block memory

144

What is Placenta Previa?

The placenta is implanted wholly or partially in lower uterine segment

145

Which of your cells express MHC-1?

All nucleated cells except the immune-privileged cells/tissues, RBC's and Platelets

146

What are the Indications for Desmopressin (DDAVP)/ADH?

Antidiuresis and Central (pituitary) DI

147

What are the atypical (no cell wall) Bacteria?

"CLUMsy"C - ChlamydiaL - LegionellaU - UreaplasmaM - Mycoplasma

148

When performing a low does dexamethasone test, a depression in ACTH levels occur, what does that tell you?

Patient is either depressed, obese, or it's a normal variant, if the low dose Dexamethasone test does not suppress...

149

What is seen in Warm Autoimmune?

Anti-Rh Ab Dapsone, PTU, antimalarials, and sulfa drugsAntibody (IgG) binds to RBC's membrane in warm temp

150

What is a nonsense mutation?

Early stop codon

151

What bug loves the posterior fossa?

TB

152

Banana-shape on x-ray?

IHSS

153

What is a Hyperacute Rejection?

Autoimmune response within 12 hours, preformed antibodies respondedThis is a Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction

154

What is Sadism?

Gives physical and psychological pain

155

What is persistent eye drainage since birth usually due to?

Blocked Duct

156

What is a Tamponade?

Decreased breathe sounds and blood pressure, distant muffled heart soundsicnreased JVD

157

What is Whipple's Disease?

Tropheryma Whipplei (T. Whipplei) destroy the GI tractCausing Malabsorption/Arthralgia, PAS (+)

158

What is Pneumonia?

Consolidation of airway

159

What are the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?

Lovastatin, Pravastatin, Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin

160

What is associated with S. Pneumoniae?

Otitis Media, red bulging TM

161

What is the MOA of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors?

Inhibits intestinal brush border Alpha-Glucosidases, Delays sugar hydrolysis and Glucose absorption from the guy, Decreases postprandial hyperglycemia

162

What do white diaper crystals suggest?

Excess Orotic acid

163

Where is a Morgagni Hernia?

Anterior/middle of diaphragm, bowel sounds in thorax, seen on US in uterosurgery to fix immediately after birth

164

How do you measure efferent renal function?

BUN or PAH

165

What is Pityriasis Rosea?

Herald Patch that migrates along skin lines in a Christmas Tree appearance

166

What are the indications for B-blockers

HTN, Angina, MI, Antiarrhythmic

167

What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia III (2B)?

Pheochromocytoma, Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Mucosal Neuromas/ Marfanoid body habitus. (tumor marker RET)

168

What is Congenital Hip Dysplasia?

Hip dislocation may be developed in uterus during delivery, found during new born eval, gluteal fold asymmetricThe Barlow/Ortolani maneuver test: there is a palpable "clunk: or click as the hip is dislocated in a posterior-superior direction

169

What does a Northern blot detect?

RNA, "sNow, dRop"

170

What is associated with EIEC?

Inflammatory = loose stool

171

What is Cullen's SIgn?

Bruising around the umbilicusCaused by hemorrhagic pancreatitis (late sign)

172

What Hepatitis B labs indicate an acute recent infection?

HBcAg+, HBsAg+, (HBcAb+/-)

173

What is Bernard-Soulier?

Baby with bleeding from skin and mucosa(Big platelets and LOW GP-1b)

174

What does cortisol do?

Gluconeogenesis by proteolysis and thins the skin, prevents and immune response, and decrease bone mass

175

What are the most common infections of the Low Energy State?

UTI and respiratory infections

176

What are the Comma (curved) shaped bugs?

Vibrio, Campylobacter, Listeria, H. Pylori

177

What is Dysmenorrhea?

PG-F causes painful menstrual cramps. (Teenagers miss school / work)

178

What is Asperger's?

Good communication skills, impaired relationships, no mental retardation

179

What is the most common cause of first trimester spontaneous abortions?

Chromosomal abnormalities

180

What is Familial Polyposis?

100% ridk of Colon Cancer, APC gene defect and annual Colonoscopy start at 5 years of age

181

What is Parkinson's disease?

Located in the Substantia Nigra, bradykinesia, pill rolling tremor, shuffling gait, Lewy Bodies

182

What is associated with Bordetella Pertussis?

Whooping cough, ADP ribosylates Gi

183

When can you tell the sex of the baby by US?

Week 16

184

What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Anti-islet cell antibody /GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) antibody.

185

What hormones produce Acidophilus?

"GAP": GH, Acidophilus, and Prolactin

186

What are the most common causes of third trimester spontaneous abortions?

Anti-Cardiolipin Ab, placenta probelms, infection, incompetent cervix

187

What is the most common cause of a White Reflex?

Retinoblastoma

188

What is Truncus arteriosus?

Spiral membrane did not develop, there is one Aortic Pulmonary trunk, mixed blood, needs PDA

189

What is an Epstein's Pearl?

White pearls on hard palate

190

What is seen in RPGN?

Crescents

191

What does a Synthase do?

Consumes two substrates

192

What is asthma?

Chronic inflammatory disease of the airwayscharacterized by variable and recurring symptoms, wheezing on expiration, elevated IgE and Eosinophils

193

What is Autism?

Poor eye contact, repetitive movements, lack of verbal skills and bonding, symptoms since birthTx: Behavioral modification, use antipsychotic if have aggressive behavior

194

What are Mongolian spots?

Melanocytes on lower back

195

What is a Factor V - Leiden?

Protein C cannot break down Factor V

196

What disease has exophthalmos?

Grave's disease

197

When can you first detect fetal heart tones?

Week 20

198

What is Multiple Personality Disorder?

They have 5-10 alters, usually associated with incest

199

What is the job of the TAL of Henle?

Makes the concentration gradient by reabsorbing Na, K, Cl, Mg, and Ca without water. (Impermeable to H2O)

200

What is the most common Nephrotic disease complication with cancer?

Amyloidosis

201

What are CD4 cells?

T-helper cell - Responds to MHC-2 (foreign attack)

202

What is the APGAR test?

Neonatal Rating Scale (0-10) Greater than 7Test @ 1 minute and 5 minutesA - Appearance (Color)P - PulseG - GrimaceA - ActivityR - Respiration

203

What symptoms does a "more likely to depolarize" state have?

Brain: Psychosis, seizures, jitterinessSkeletal Muscle: muscle spasms, tetanySmooth Muscle: diarrhea, then constipationCardiac: tachycardia, arrhythmia

204

Whata re the anabolic pathways that store energy? (occur in the cytoplasm)

Fatty acid synthesis, Glycolysis, HMP shunt, translation

205

Whata re the indications for Guanethidine?

Severe HTN

206

Which cytokines do T-helper cells stimulate?

All IL's except IL-1

207

What is seen in newborn with HSV-2 in utero infections?

Temporal Lobe encephalitis, must offer C-section to mom with active lesions

208

What is the Primary Diabetes Insipidus (DI)?

Too much water (urinates a lot)

209

What is Merocrine?

Cell is maintained. (exocytosis)

210

What is the most common cause of primary hypoparathyroidism?

Thyroidectomy

211

What are the Silver Stainer's?

"HaLV-C"H - H. PyloriL - ListeriaV - VicrioC - Campylobacter

212

What has WBC Casts and RBC Casts?

Glomerulonephritis

213

What are the 3 kinds of generalized seizures?

Tonic-clonic "Grand Mal"Absence "Petit Mal"Status Epilepticus

214

What are the side effects of Progesterone?

Acne, depression, HTN, increase appetite, acne causes dilution anemia, quiescent uterus, PICA, hypotension, melisma (AKA Chloasma)

215

What is Ficticious Disorder by Proxy?

Mom makes the child or another person ill for emotional support, noted to move frequently

216

What is associated with ETEC?

Traveler's Diarrhea = rice water diarrhea

217

What are the Adverse Effects of Levothyroxine (T4)/Triiodothyronine (T3)?

Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors and Arrhythmias

218

What is the Somatic Nervous System?

Moving your muscles

219

What state does Estrogen mimic?

The Neuromuscular disease stateEstrogen is a muscle relaxant

220

What is the most common Nephrotic disease in diabetics?

Nodular Sclerosis

221

What is Placenta Accreta?

Placenta is attached to the endometrium

222

What is Polymenorrhea?

Too many periods

223

What do you see in CMV in utero infections?

Spastic diplegia of legs, hepatosplenomegaly, blindness, central calcifications

224

What diseases have Hemoptysis?

Bronchiectasis, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, TB, Lung CA, Goodpasture's, Wegener's

225

What are the Immuno-privileged sites?

Areas of the body that have no lymphatic flow, no antigens, and these areas can be transplanted without fear of rejection (brain, cornea, thymus, and testes) they do not express MHC-1

226

What is the difference between Acute and Chronic Leukemia's?

Acute: started out in the bone marrow, squeezes RBC out of the marrowChronic: started in the periphery, not constrained and will expand

227

What is Lochia?

Endometrial slough. (normal discharge and uterus after birth)

228

What does fixed wide S-2 splitting tell you?

ASD

229

What is Cryptorchidism?

Testes never descended out of abdomen, sterility after 15 months, predisposed to seminomas and CA

230

What is the MOA of Class IC antiarrhythmic?

Na+ channel blocker

231

What is the function of ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)?

Stimulates Cortisol and Androgen releases from the adrenal gland

232

What is the indication for Salmeterol?

Long acting agent for prophylaxis

233

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Beta Oxidation?

Carnitine Acyltransferase -1 (CAT-1)

234

What do the IgA protease bugs cause?

Sinusitis, Otitis Media, Pneumonia/Bronchitis

235

What are the causes of Hyperbilirubinemia?

Sepsis, ABO Incompatibility, Hypothyroidism and Breast-feeding

236

What does a Hydroxylase do?

Adds-OH group onto substrate

237

What is Mittelschmerz

Pain with ovulation

238

What is the MOA of Ezetimibe?

Prevents cholesterol reabsorption at small intestine brush border

239

What is Barrett's Esophagus?

Metaplasia of the lower esophagus increased risk of Adenocarcinoma

240

How do you diagnose Rheumatic Fever?

JONES CriteriaJ - Joint InvolvementO - MyocarditisN- Nodules, subcutaneousE - Erythema MarginatumS- Sydenham Chorea 

241

What is a missense mutation?

Mistaken amino acid substitution (i.e. SS disease Valine for Glutamic Acid)

242

What are the adverse effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?

Hepatotoxicity (increase LFT's)Rhabdo

243

What is Masochism?

Receives pain (Humiliation)

244

What other diseases can have exophthalmos?

Horner's and Marfan's

245

What vessels have the highest capacitance?

Veins and Venules

246

Waht does the Surface Ag tell you?

Alone it means it's been occupied/ with other markers it means it is a current infection, if present for > 6 months it's chronic

247

What is seen in iron deficiency?

Anemia

248

What is Celiac Sprue?

Found in the JejunumWheat AllergyVillous atrophAnti-gluter-gliadin antibodies

249

What is uremia?

Azotemia (renal failure) with symptoms

250

What is Urge incontinence?

Urgency leads to complete voiding detrusor spasticity leads to small bladder volume

251

What does epinephrine (Epi) do?

Drives gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis

252

What bug is associated with cat saliva?

Pasteurella Multocida

253

What is a Corticotrope?

ACTH

254

What is Ductal Carcinoma?

Worst prognosis Breast CA

255

What is associated with C. Tetani?

Rusty nail wounds - inhibits GLY release, respiratory failure, Risus Sardonicus, tennis racquet shaped appearance

256

What is Meig's Syndrome?

Pleural effusion, ovarian fibroma, ascites

257

What blood level should be monitored in patients taking statins?

Liver enzymes every 3 months and Serum Cr

258

What is the most common cause of Polyhydramnios?

Neuromuscular problem: Werdnig HoffmanGI problem: Duodenal atresia

259

What is Hairy Cell Leukemia?

Cells have a fried egg/ Sunburst appearance and TRAP +

260

What does motilin do?

Stimulates segmentation, primary peristalsis, and migrating motor complexes (MMC)

261

What is Pneumothorax?

Absent breath sounds on one side

262

What is Identification?

To be like or to become like another (aspect, property or attribute of another)

263

What is the most common cause of post-coital Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnant women?

Placenta previa

264

What are the adverse effects of Hydralazine?

Compensatory tachycardia, fluid retention, Lupus like syndrome, contraindicated in Angina/CAD because of compensatory tachy

265

What does an AFI >20 indicate?

Polyhydramnios (DM)

266

What is Somatization?

Psychological trigger gets them sick, but no medical finding (Pain in 4 parts, 2 GI problems)Tx: Psychotherapy

267

What is the second generation Sulfonylureas?

Glyburide, Glimepiride, and Glipizide

268

What can you measure to test afferent arteriole's function?

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or Inulin

269

What does a wide S-2 split tell you?

Increases OxygenIncreased right ventricular volumeDelayed pulmonic vlave opening

270

What are the indications for administering Potassium?

Digoxin toxicity, activated charcoal: binds digoxin in the intestineDigibind: binds to digoxin in the bloodstream

271

What is Tracheitis?

"Acute URI"Patients look toxicGrey PseudomembraneLeukocytosis

272

What is the common side effect of the ERCP procedure?

Pacreatitis from blocking the pancreatic duct during the procedure

273

What amino acid turns yellow on Ninhydrin reaction?

Pro

274

What is the job of the late Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct?

Final concentration of urine by reabsorbing water and excretion of acid

275

What separates unconjugated bilirubin from albumin?

Sulfur (no Sulfur Rx in pregnancy)

276

What is Caput Succedaneum?

Bleeding under scalp (edema will cross suture lines)

277

What are the indications for Levothyroxine (T4)/Triiodothyronine (T3)?

Hypothyroidism and Myxedema

278

What is an Autograft?

Twin to twin (spare parts)

279

What are the H2 blockers?

Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, and Nizatidine

280

How does a Subdural Hematoma present?

Headache 4 weeks after trauma, elderly (loose brain)

281

What GI disease has a RUQ Olive Mass?

Pyloric Stenosis

282

How would you know the patient has a Vitamin A (retinoic Acid) Deficiency?

Poor night vision, Hypoparathyroidism, dry skin

283

What is Histiocytosis X?

Histiocyte proliferation Kid with Eczema, skill lesionsHand-Schuller-Christian disease

284

What is Body Dysmorphic Disorder?

Imagined physical defect, causing impaired function in a social or occupational activityTx: SSRI

285

What happens when there is a biotin Deficiency?

Loss of carboxylase function

286

What is the MOA of Methylxanthines?

Inhibit Phosphodiesterase -> decreases cAMP hydrolysis promoting bronchodilation

287

How does a Somatostatinoma present?

Constipation

288

What are the types of VWD?

Type 1 (AD): Decreased VW FActor ProductionType 2 (AD): Decreased VW Activity(+ Ristocetin Aggregation test)Type 3 (AR): No VWF

289

What does Calcitonin do?

Inhibits Osteoclasts and binds to calcium

290

What is Countertransference?

Doctor views patient as child

291

What does Sudan Black Stain test for?

Steatorrhea (fat malabsorption), patient seen with chronic pale, greasy, malodorous diarrhea and no evidence of infection

292

What tests are used for following Pancreatitis?

Amylase (sensitive) breaks down Carbohydrates and Lipase (specific) breaks down Triglycerides

293

What is Postpartum Psychosis

Hallucinations, suicidal/infaticidal thoughts

294

What color is stool with an Upper GI Bleed?

Black (Dark Red) (Melena)

295

What are the most common signs of the Low Energy State?

Tachypnea and Dyspnea

296

What is the Adverse Effect of Glitazones/Thiazolidinedione's?

Weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity, increases LDL and triglycerides, CHF and Contraindicated

297

What is the MOA of Octreotide?

Long-acting somatostatin analog

298

What is Plummer's Syndrome?

Hyperthyroid adenoma

299

What is aspergillosis?

Mold, compost piles, associated with peanuts

300

How does Diverticulitis present?

Pain in LLQ, no visible blood and may cause peritonitis

301

What has WBC Casts?

Nephritis

302

What are the cholesterol Absorption blockers?

Ezetimibe

303

What murmurs occur during systole?

Holosystolic or pansystolic

304

What is Acting out?

expression of impulse, "Temper Tantrums"

305

What is the Intermediate Acting Insulin drug?

NPH and Lente

306

What is Schatzki's Ring?

Esophageal webs in the lower EsophagusDysphagia (mucosal tissue)

307

What is McArdle's?

Myophosphorylase deficiency(skeletal muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase)muscle cramps w/ exercise, increased Glycogen in muscle only, blood glucose NLSecond wind phenomenon

308

What is inevitable Abortion?

Cervix is open, baby is intact

309

What is pseudo-hypoparathyroidism?

Bad kidney, PTH receptor, decreased urinary, cAMP

310

What is hemochromatosis?

Iron deposits in organsleads to hyperpigmentation, bronze diabetes, and arthritis

311

What do B cell deficiency patients die of?

Bacterial infection?

312

What are the adverse effects of Guanethidine?

Contraindicated in patients taking TCA's

313

What affects Potency?

Km (EC50)

314

What does blood type A tell you?

They have the A antigen and B antibodies

315

What does Vit B4 do?

Glycolysis, no known diseases

316

What is Illusion?

Misinterprets stimulus

317

What is Repression?

Subconsciously block memory

318

What is Thought Withdrawal?

Believes that others are taking thoughts out of his head

319

What does S-2 splitting tell you?

Normal on inspirationPulmonic valve closing later

320

What is open-angle glaucoma?

Overproduction of fluid, painless Ipsilateral dilated pupil, gradual tunnel vision, optic disc cupping

321

What is Pseudomembranous Colitis?

Overgrowth of C. DiffDue to normal flora being killed off from long term antibiotic use

322

What are the indications for H2 blockers?

Peptic ulcer, gastritis and esophageal reflux

323

What is a Necrophile?

Someone who has sex with corpses

324

What is associated with R. Rickettsii?

Ticks = Rocky Mountain spotted fever

325

What is associated with Shigella?

Day care outbreaks, seizures, destroys the 60S ribosome, infects M-cells

326

What is Post-Renal Failure?

Obstruction (hydronephrosis)

327

What is a Bezoar?

Mass of non-digestible product (i.e. Hair) causing an occlusion at the pylorus

328

What is a Hemangioblastoma?

In the cerebellum, associated with VHL

329

What will you see with Iron Deficiency Anemia?

Increased TIBC associated with menses, GI bleeding, and Koilonychia

330

How do I know the patient has a Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Deficiency?

No deficiency state

331

What is a fetish?

High attraction for inanimate objects

332

What is a possible cause if pulse rises more than 10 bpm in repositioning from lying to sitting?

Hypervolemia

333

What does the Hep B Core Ag tell you?

Gone before patient has symptoms (present from 0-2 months)

334

What is Mallory-Weiss?

Tearing of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), associated with chronic vomiting, cough up a little blood and possible visible varices

335

What is Cushing's disease?

High ACTH due to pituitary tumor or Small cell carcinoma of the lungs

336

What is a Craniopharyngioma?

Motor oil biopsy, tooth enamel, Rathke's Pouch, ADH problem, Bitemporal Hemianopsia

337

What Does Vit E do?

Antioxidantacts as an tagonist to Vit K in high levels

338

What are the Foot Ulcer Risk Factors?

Poor glycemic control (HbA1C >7), smoking, bony abnormalities, previous ulcers

339

What GI disease has a Thumb Print on X-Ray?

Toxic Megacolon

340

What is Silicosis?

Sandblasters and glassblowers

341

What is Tropical Sprue?

Found in the distal iliumCaused by bacterial or viral, amoeba or parasitic infectionVillous atrophy

342

What are the adverse effects of corticosteroids?

Osteoporosis, Cushingoid reaction, psychosis, glucose intolerance, infection, HTN, cataracts

343

What is Holocrine?

The whole cell is secreted. (except sebaceous gland)

344

What is Acromegaly?

Growth hormone tumor producing increased IGF-1 causing: bone growth in adults, coarse facial features, large furrowed tongue, deep husky voice, jaw protrusion

345

When is B-HCG found in Blood?

8-10 days after fertilization

346

What does Chymotrypsin cut?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

347

What is Backward Typing?

Used Antigens to detect Antibodies

348

What are the ketogenic amino acids?

Lys, Leu

349

What are the Adverse Effects of GLP-1 Analogs?

Nausea, Vomiting and Pancreatitis

350

What makes Scleroderma Unique?

Can have a decreased LES pressure or and increased LES pressure

351

What is epiglottitis?

inflammation of the epiglottisthumb sign on x-rayexcessive drooling

352

Waht is associated with Brucella?

Seen in farmers/ Vets, Animal placentas are the vector, Spiking fever 5 times a day

353

What GI disease has Barium Clumping on X-Ray?

Celiac Sprue

354

What are the Short Acting Insulin drugs?

Aspart and Lispro

355

What is seen in Measles (Rubeola)?

CCCK: Cough, Coryza (runny nose), Conjunctivitis, Koplik SpotMorbilliform blotchy rash

356

What is an Insulinoma?

Insulin secreting tumor, labs show increased insulin and C-peptide

357

What ion has the greatest movement at rest?

Potassium

358

What is seen with Fluoride deficiency?

Poor teeth and bone growth

359

What hepatitis B labs indicate immunization >2/52 weeks?

HBsAb+

360

What valves make noise at the end of systole?

Aortic and Pulmonic

361

What is Riedel's Struma?

"Woody" connective tissue in neck, death due to suffocation and must rule out CA

362

What is the MOA of Digoxin?

Direct inhibition of Na+/K= ATPase leads to indirect inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, positive inotrope, stimulates vagus nerve

363

What does a Thio do?

Breaks S bonds

364

What is Hungry Bone Syndrome?

Removal of PTH and the bone sucks in calcium

365

What do high GABA levels lead to?

Bradycardia, lethargy, constipation, impotence, memory loss

366

What is Shoulder Dystocia?

Head is out of vagina, shoulder is stuck. (Occurs in late term deliveries and DM in mom)

367

What structures have Fake sphincters?

Ureters, LES, Ileocecal valve

368

What does Endocrine mean?

Secreted into bood

369

What are the indications for Misoprostol?

Prevents NSAID-induced peptic ulcers, maintenance of a Patent Ductus ArteriosusInduce labor

370

What is the Indication for PTU and Methimazole?

Hyperthyroidism

371

What are the expectorants?

Guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine

372

What does an epimerase do?

Creates an epimer, which differs around one chiral carbon

373

What is the MOA of Guaifenesin?

Removes excess sputum but does not suppress cough reflex

374

What are the indications for Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine?

Reduces Hyperemesis, edema, nasal congestion, and opens obstructed Eustachian tubes

375

What has Crescents?

RPGN

376

What are wide sutures due to?

Hypothyroidism and Down's Syndrome

377

What is a Transvestite?

Dress up as opposite sex, no identity crisis

378

What does SAM donated methyl groups for?

All other reactions

379

When do valves make noise under normal physiology?

When the valves close

380

What is systole?

Ejection of blood from the heart, Decreased blood flow to Coronary arteries, more extraction of Oxygen Phase 1 Korotkoff

381

What is Homocystinuria?

No Homocysteine -> Cysteine(Cystathionine Synthase Deficiency)or Homocysteine Methyltransferase(Methionine Synthase) Deficiency or decreased Affinity of Cystathionine Synthase for Pyridoxal PhosphateIncreased Homocysteine in urinMarfanoid Habitusdownward dislocation of lensincreased risk stroke/MI

382

What is associated with Bacillus Anthracis?

Black Eschar, Wool Sorter's Lung diseaseD-Glu, boxcar-like spore, treat with Cipro

383

What type of immunity does TH1 provide?

Enhances cell mediated immunity

384

What are the adverse effects of Prazosin?

Orthostatic Hypotension

385

What is the most common cause of post-coital Vaginal Bleeding?

Cervical CA

386

What are the Leopold Maneuvers?

To determine the position of the babyFeel the fundusFeel the baby's neckFeel the pelvic inletFeel the baby's head

387

What is the function of Inhibin?

Inhibits FSH so there is no menstruation

388

What is a Transsexual?

Gender Identity crisis

389

What are the Survival Hormones?

Cortisol: permissive under stress. TSH: permissive under normal

390

What is the cause of Symmetrically small babies?

In Early onset: Chromosomal Abnormalities or TORCHES

391

What will you see in Lead Poisoning?

Decreased dALA dehydrogenasedecreased Ferrochelataseblue lines on x-rayhistory of eating old paint chips