Complete Deck Part 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Complete Deck Part 4 Deck (388):
1

What does Indirect Coombs Test tell you?

The Antibody is freely circulating in the serum

2

What are the ACE inhibitors?

Captopril, Enalapril, Fosinopril, Lisinopril

3

What does the Carnitine shuttle do?

FA transport into the mitochondria

4

What are the Adverse Effects of Glucocorticoids?

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. (Adrenal insufficiency when drug stopped after chronic use)

5

What is the function of HPL?

Blocks insulin receptors so the sugar stays high, (baby is stocking up - hibernating)

6

What is Thought Insertion?

Believes that others are putting thoughts into his head

7

What is Benign Positional Vertigo?

Sensation of room spinningNausea/VomitingNystagmus without hearing loss or tinnitusOnset of symptoms when change position

8

What is Inflammatory Diarrhea?

Diarrhea with blood and pus

9

What does a mutase do?

Relocates a functional group within a moleculre (intrachain)

10

What is Gaucher's?

Glucocerebrosidase (Beta-Glucosidase) deficiencywrinkled tissue Macrophage'sBone painpancytopenia

11

What are the Indications for Octreotide?

Acromegaly; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Carcinoid Syndrome

12

What causes non-bacterial Fetal infections?

"TORCHST- ToxoplasmaO - Others (HIV, Measles, B-19)R - RubellaC - CMVH - HSV-2S - Syphilis

13

What are the adverse effects of the Class IB antiarrhythmic?

CNS stimulation and depressionCardiovascular depressionHyperkalemia increases toxicity

14

What is Sublimation?

Where socially unacceptable impulses or idealizations are unconsciously transformed into socially acceptable actions or behavior

15

What is Phimosis?

Foreskin scarred at penis head

16

How do I know the patient has a Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency?

Scurvy

17

What defines CLL?

50+ y/o males with lymphadenopathysoccer ball nucleiPresent with autoimmune Hemolytic anemia

18

What does Vit B12 do?

Cofactor for HMT & MMA

19

What GI disease has an Apple Core on X-Ray?

Colorectal Cancer

20

What are Burr Cell/ Echinocyte?

Seen in Pyruvate Kinase deficiencyLiver diseasePost splenectomy

21

What does a Synthetase do?

Consumes two substrates, uses ATP

22

What is a silent mutation?

Changes leave the same amino acid

23

What does blood type AB tell you?

Have both Antigens (universal recipient)

24

What are the adverse effects of Diazoxide?

Hypoglycemia (reduces insulin release) and hypotension

25

What is Delusion?

Fixed false belief for more than one month and no effect to his normal livingTx: Atypical antipsychotic and psychotherapy

26

How do you know it's an anaerobic infection?

gas and bad odor

27

What is SHeehan Syndrome?

Postpartum hemorrhage in pituitary, no LH or FSH = no periods, hyperplasia infarcts, no prolactin = no milk

28

What is the most common eye infection in New Born

First day - Clear discharge due to Silver NitrateFirst week - Gonorrhea (purulent discharge)Second week - ChlamydiaThird week - Herpes

29

What is Cystic Fibrosis?

Defective chloride transportermeconium ileussteatorrheaBronchiectasisChromosome 7

30

What is the MOA of adenosine?

Increase K+ efflux, hyperpolarizes the cell

31

What does Vit C do?

Collagen synthesisantioxidanthelps absorb FE++, necessary for Dopamine & hydroxylase for NE

32

What is assocaited with H. Pylori?

95% causative agent in Duodenal Ulcers

33

What organs have the most CD4 receptors?

Blood vesselsbraintesticlescervixrectum

34

What is the RBC normal lifespan?

120 days

35

What is a Somatotrope?

Growth hormone

36

What is Separation Anxiety Disorder?

Kid screams when mom leaves

37

What are the adverse effects of H2 blockers?

Prolactin release: Gynecomastia, decreased libido, impotence in malesCimetidine inhibits P450

38

What are Fibroids (Leiomyoma's)?

Benign uterus smooth muscle tumorsubmucosal type: they bleedSubserosal type: they cause pain

39

What is Metabolic Syndrome X?

"Pre-DM" due to HTN, Dyslipidemia, Hyperinsulinemia, and Acanthosis Nigricans

40

Which cells express MHC-2?

Antigen presenting cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils)

41

What is Non-competitive Inhibition?

Binds a regulatory site, no change in Km, Efficacy decreases, decreased Vmax

42

What is Fifth's disease?

Erythema Infectiosum "Slapped Cheeks"B-19 ParvovirusAplastic anemia, in sickle cell patientsHydrops Fetalis

43

What are the adverse effects of Nesiritide?

Hypotension

44

What are the adverse effects of Class IC antiarrhythmic?

Prolongs refractory period in AV node Hyperkalelmia increases toxicity

45

What is a Basophil?

The allergy helper (IgE receptor - histamine release)

46

What is SCID?

No Thymus (no T-cells)frayed long bones (no B-cells)baby dies by 18 months

47

What does the Macula Densa do?

Measures osmolality (osmoles of solute-kg)

48

What type of people does Hep E like to infect?

Pregnant women (3rd trimester), Asians

49

What is Lobular Carcinoma?

Cells line up single file, contralateral breast is primary site of CA

50

Which stage of the Menstrual Cycle has the highest Estrogen levels?

Follicular stage (Has proliferative endothelium)

51

What is seen in Sickle Cell Anemia?

Crew-cut on x-rayAvascular Necrosis of femur

52

What is Croup?

Respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway, steeple sign on x-ray, barking cough

53

What do T cell deficiency patients die of?

Viral infections, fungal, etcexcept bacterial

54

What can high Cholesterol Cause?

Atherosclerosis

55

How do tension headaches present?

"Band-like" pain starts in posterior neck, increases throughout the day, sleep disturbance

56

What are the Big Mama Anaerobes?

Bacteroides fragilisStreptococcus BovisC. MelanagosepticusC. Diff

57

What is Vascular "multi-infarct" dementia?

Sudden onset, uneven progression of deficits, "stair step" decline

58

What is Cephalohematoma?

Bleeding under bone (blood does not cross suture lines)

59

What bugs cause hospital abscesses?

Day 1-3: S. Aureus (lots of O2 present)Day 4-7: S. Viridans - no enzymeDay >7: Anaerobes - PMN's

60

What is a Paranoid Personality Disorder?

Suspicious about everything, they use projection

61

What is Selective Mutism?

Kid talks sometimes

62

What is Schizotypal Personality Disorder?

"Magical Thinking", odd/bizarre behavior, people leave them alone because they are weird but they will interact if approached. Brief psychotic episode

63

What is Menorrhagia?

Heavy menstrual bleeding

64

What causes Syphilis?

Treponema Pallidum (Spirochete)

65

What is the only Gram-positive Endotoxin?

Listeria

66

What are the Adverse Effects of Misoprostol?

Diarrhea; Contraindicated in women of childbearing potential abortion inducing drug

67

What is EC50?

Concentration of drug that produces 50% of maximal response

68

What is Oppositional Defiant Disorder?

Breaking the rules, defiant, noncompliant, resists authority, "bark is worse than bite". Teach appropriate child management skills

69

What is Virilization?

Female that is Man like

70

What are the Microcytic Hypochromic Anemias?

Defect in Hb synthesis (RBC small and pale) "FAST lead"F - Fe DeficiencyA - Anemia of Chronic DiseaseS - Sideroblastic AnemiaT - Alpha and Beta Thalassemia'sL - Lead poisoning

71

What organ has the highest AVO2 difference during a test?

Brain

72

What is associated with Staph Saprophyticus?

Seen in young girls / women who became sexually active, E. Coli is still the #1 cause of UTI's

73

What is an Ependymoma?

Rosettes present in the 4th Ventricle, Hydrocephalus

74

What is Zellweger's?

Neonatal Seizures

75

What does Atrial Natriuretic Peptide do?

Inhibits aldosterone and dilates the afferent arteriole

76

What is the most common type of Gallstone?

Cholesterol stone (not see on X-ray)

77

What is associated with N. Gonorrhea?

Pili, Urethritis, Tenosynovitis, Septic arthritis

78

What is a Xanthoma

Cholesterol build up (common at the elbow or Achilles tendon)

79

What is Berylliosis?

Radio, TV repair, aerospace manufacturing, Beryllium mining, or manufacturing of fluorescent light bulbs

80

What are the indications for Guaifenesin?

Minor upper respiratory tract infections, common cold w/ cough

81

What diagnosis has secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Renal failure

82

How does Chancroid present?

Painful with necrotic center, due to Haemophilus Ducreyi (Gram Negative rod)"School of Fish" pattern

83

What is Placenta Abruptio?

Severe pain due to premature separation of the placenta

84

What produces Currant Jelly Sputum

Klebsiella

85

What are the IgA protease bugs?

S. PneumoniaeH. InfluenzaM. Catarrhalis

86

What are the GLP-1 Analog drugs?

Exenatide and Liraglutide

87

What bug is associated with cat pee?

Toxoplasmosis

88

What does PTH do?

Stimulates osteoblast to activate osteoclasts, stimulates the reabsorption of Ca+ and the excretion of phosphate in the kidneys, and activation of vitamin D

89

What is FSGS?

Most common in IVDA, AA, Hispanics and HIV patients

90

What is the only statin to undergo renal excretion?

Pravastatin

91

What does hyperresonance tell you?

Air in that region of the lungs`

92

What has WBC Casts ONLY?

Pyelonephritis

93

What is the MOA of Metoprolol, Atenolol, Acebutolol, Esmolol?

Selective B1-Blockers

94

What is the MOA of PTU and Methimazole?

Inhibits peroxidase enzyme in Thyroid and Decreases synthesis of Thyroid Hormones

95

What is associated with Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

Chinese letters under microscope, gray Pseudomembrane, heart block, suffocation = death, ADP Ribosylates EF2, Elek's Test

96

What is Epididymitis?

Unilateral scrotal pain decreased by support

97

What is the Adverse effect of Biguanides?

Lactic Acidosis (Contraindicated in renal failure) Stop use in patients undergoing studies using contrast

98

What is the Autonomic Nervous System?

Automatic stuff... i.e. breathing, heartbeat

99

What causes Neonatal Blindness

Chlamydia

100

What is Eclampsia?

HTN with seizures

101

What is Condylomata Lata?

Flat fleshy warts, ulcerate = secondary syphilis

102

How much weight should a woman gain during Pregnancy?

1 lb/ week

103

What is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?

Perfectionist, doesn't show feelings, detail oriented, uses isolation

104

Which cytokine is released when a macrophage is activated?

IL-1

105

How does an epidural hematoma present?

Intermittent consciousness (lucid interval)

106

What has a friction rub while holding breath?

Pericarditis

107

What does biotin donate methyl groups for?

Carboxylation

108

What is associated with H. Influenzae?

Gram-negative Pleomorphic Rod, Factors V and X, 5 carbon Ribose capsule, HiB type causes Meningitis, Epiglottitis, and Sepsis

109

What is Tuberous Sclerosis?

Ashleaf spots (hypopigmentation)Primary brain tumorsHeart RhabdomyolysisRenal cell CAShagreen spots (leathery)

110

What is Vernix?

Cheesy baby skin. (protects the baby's skin from the outside world and helps with passage through the birth canal)

111

What is Postpartum Depression?

Depression post-delivery for more than 2 weeks

112

What does Vit B1 do?

Dehydrogenasestransketolase (PPP)cofactors

113

What does DES taken by Mom cause in her Daughter?

Adenomyosis, menorrhagia, clear cell CA of the vagina, recurrent abortions

114

What are the Osmotic Laxatives?

Magnesium hydroxide, mag citrate, polyethylene glycol, Lactulose

115

What diseases have metabolic alkalosis?

Low volume state: vomiting, diuretics, GI blood loss

116

What are the Class IA antiarrhythmic?

Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide

117

What bacteria cause diarrhea <8 hours after introduction?

"CBS"C - ClostridiumB - Bacillus CereusS - Staphylococcus aureus

118

What is Maple Syrup Urine disease?

Defective metabolism of branched aa (Leu, Iso, Val) -> aa leak out, urine smells like Maple syrup/ burnt sugar, defect of branched chain alpha Keto acid Dehydrogenase

119

What is Milia?

Neonatal white or pale yellow heads on malar area

120

What is Toxoplasmosis?

Multiple ring enhancing lesions, loves parietal love, from cat urine and feces

121

What is Apocrine?

Apex of the cell is secreted

122

What states have increased Estrogen?

Pregnancy, liver failure, P-450 inhibition, and obesity

123

What are the adverse effects of Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine?

HTN, CNS stimulation/ anxiety

124

What is von Gierke?

G-6 Phosphatase deficiencysevere fasting hypoglycemiahepatomegalyincreased lactase and uric acid levels

125

What hormones produce Basophila?

"B FLAT": Basophils, FSH, LH, ACTH, and TSH

126

What is Huntington's?

Occurs in the caudate/putamen, Trinucleotide repeat disorder (Chromosome 4, CAG), choreiform movements, changes in personality, anticipation

127

What is Oligomenorrhea?

Too few periods

128

What bug loves the temporal love?

HSV

129

What is an Encephalocele?

Brain tissue herniation

130

What is Karyolysis?

Nucleus dissolves

131

What is Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding?

Diagnosis of exclusion, usually due to anovulation

132

What has a friction rub while breathing?

Pleuritic

133

What is Hemochromatosis?

Fe deposit in organs

134

What is an Acute Rejection?

Occurs 4 days to months later. T-cell and macrophage response

135

What are the indications for Methyldopa?

HTN

136

What does secretin do?

Secretion of bicarbonate, inhibit gastrin, tighten Pyloric Sphincter, and secreted by S-cell Duodenum

137

When does Implantation occur?

1 week after fertilization

138

What is Comedocarcinoma?

Multiple focal areas of necrosis (blackheads) DCIS

139

What is Vestibular Neuritis?

Inflammation of the vestibular portion (CN8), Could be associated with viral infection, characterized by vertigo and dizziness

140

What is the MOA of Potassium on the heart?

Depresses ectopic pacemaker in hypokalemia

141

What is a Nephroblastoma?

Abdominal mass due to enlarged "Wilm's Tumor", hemihypertrophy and Aniridia

142

What is the most common cause of delayed speech developement?

Hearing loss

143

What is the Peripheral Nervous System?

Everything except the brain and spinal cord. Myelination by the schwann cells

144

What is Imitation?

Replicating another's behavior

145

What is Cholelithiasis?

Formation of gallstones

146

What is the most common cause of Vaginal Bleeding in Post-menopausal women?

Endometrial CA

147

Can you die during Opiod Withdrawal?

No, just very painful

148

What are the symptoms of Amniotic Fluid Emboli?

Mom just delivered Baby and mom has SOB, due to PE, leads to death

149

What is Nephritic Kidney Disease?

Inflammation with protein loss <3.5 in urineIncreased size of Fenestrations, RBC casts, HTN

150

What is your maximum heart rate?

220 minus the person's age

151

What are the indications for Reserpine?

HTN

152

What is seen in Calcium deficiency?

Poor bone and teeth development

153

What is Eisenmenger's Syndrome?

Physiological shunt from left to right now changes right to left

154

What are some PPIs?

Omeprazole, Lansoprazole

155

What kind of Patients does Staph and Pseudomonas like to attack?

DM, CF, Burn Patients, Neutropenic patients

156

What does a Transferase do?

Relocates a functional group from one molecule to another

157

What is associated with P. Mirabilis?

Staghorn Calculus, UTI, Urease Positive, Treat with Norfloxacin

158

What is Emphysema?

Obstructive diseaseAlpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

159

What is PSGN?

Most common in kids. Subepithelial humps (IgG/C3/C4 deposition) lumpy bumpy on EM and ASO antibodies

160

What is Sixth's DIsease?

Roseola, Exanthema Subitum (fever disappears then rash appears)

161

What is a Lymphocyte?

The warrior - T, B, and NK cells

162

What disease has a "3" shape on x-ray?

Coarctation of the aorta

163

What is MPGN

Tram tracks seen (Type II has low C3) on LM

164

What is Peutz Jegher Syndrome?

Hyper-pigmented lower lip, patients will have dark gyms and vagina, and small bowel polyps

165

What is Chronic Granulomatous Disease?

NADPH Oxidase deficiency - they have recurrent Staph / Aspergillus infections (Nitro-blue Tetrazolium Stain Negative) or Dihydrorhodamine flow and Cytometry test

166

What is Type 2B Hyperlipidemia?

Deficiency of adipose receptors and LDL receptors (Increased LDL and VLDL levels)

167

What is the MOA of Nitroprusside?

Direct release of NO, increases cGMP, vasodilator

168

What is a Tear Drop Cell/ Dacrocyte?

RBC's squeezed out of bone marrow. (Seen in Hemolytic Anemia and bone marrow CA)

169

What is Decreased beat-to-beat variability?

Acidemia

170

What does Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) do?

Increases insulin action, responsible for post-prandial hypoglycemia

171

What is the difference between norepinephrine and epinephrine?

NE: NeurotransmitterEPI: Hormone

172

What are the adverse effects of ACE inhibitors?

Hyperkalemia, cough, angioedemacontraindicated in pregnancy (fetal renal malformations)

173

What is Cataplexy?

Loss of muscle tone due to strong emotions

174

What does dullness to percussion tell you?

Something between the airspace and chest wall absorbing sound, can be solid or fluid

175

What hepatitis B labs indicate a chronic carrier state?

HBsAg+, (>6 months), HBsAb (+/-)

176

What are the Diastolic Blowing murmurs?

Aortic regurgitation, pulmonic regurgitation

177

What is the MOA of Isoproterenol?

Non-specific, Beta-agonists;relates bronchial smooth muscle (B2)

178

What does Exocrine mean?

Secreted into a duct

179

What is Apoptosis?

Programmed cell death, no inflammation, and cell membrane dissolved first. Nucleus guides death & destroyed last

180

What are theh Renin-angio system effectors?

ACE inhibitors and ARBs

181

What are the most common symptoms of the Low Energy State?

Weakness and SOB

182

What is Reynold's Pentad?

Jaundice, Fever (usually with Rigors), RUQ Pain, Hypotension and change in mental status

183

What does Ca2+ do?

Neuronal function, atrial depolarization, smooth muscle contractility

184

What diseases have Granulomas?

"HiTTSS"Hi - Histiocytosis XT - TBT - The -Ella'sS - SarcoidosisS - Syphilis

185

What is a Complete Breech?

Butt down, thighs, and legs flexed

186

What is Grey-Turner's Sign?

Bleed into Flanks and caused by Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis (early signs)

187

What is associated with Francisella Tularensis?

Ulcers at rabbit or deer tick bite siteRx: Streptomycin

188

What is associated with Bartonella Henselae?

Cat Scratch = Single painful lymph node, Stains silver

189

What is Avoidant Personality Disorder?

Socially withdrawn, afraid of rejection but wants to fit in

190

What is a Sister Mary Joseph Nodule?

Ovarian CA that has spread to the umbilicus(Also GI cancers can cause) (Indicates metastasis)

191

What does the Core Ab tell you?

Past infection

192

What is associated with Clostridium Melangosepticus?

Colon CA

193

What is a Neuroblastoma?

Adrenal medulla tumor in kids, dancing eyes and feet and secretes catecholamine's

194

What are the inidcations for Cromolyn?

Asthma prophylaxis

195

What is Rationalization?

Make excuses for behavior in advance, (because of...)

196

What are the indications for Nesiritide?

Acute decompensated heart failure

197

How do you measure afferent renal function?

Creatinine or Inulin

198

What is a Spherocyte?

Old RBC

199

What is Thought Broadcasting?

Believes that everyone can read his thoughts

200

What is associated with Chlamydia psittaci?

Parakeets and Parrots are the carrier agent

201

What does high WBC and >5% Blasts tell you?

Leukemia

202

What does a high WBC and <5% Blasts tell you?

Leukemoid reaction - seen in burn patients or any extreme stress (extreme demargination looks like Leukemia), Metamyelocytes => Myelocytes

203

What is Displacement?

Take anger out on an object or someone else. Not related with situation

204

What is Turcot's Syndrome?

Familial Polyposis with Brain Tumors

205

What is Central Pontine Myelinolysis?

This happens when you correct serum sodium faster than 0.5 mEq/hr. (infarct the PONS- patient can only blink)

206

How does trigeminal neuralgia (Tic Douloureux) present?

Sharp, shooting face pain, recurrent episodes

207

What does an AFI <5 indicate?

Oligohydramnios (Cord compression)

208

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Glycogenesis?

Glycogen Synthase. Occurs in the Cytoplasm of Liver and muscle

209

What is Bronze diabetes?

Fe deposit in pancreas

210

What does Aldosterone do?

Reabsorbs Na+ and three waters

211

What is Chronic Pelvic Pain?

Endometriosis until proven otherwise

212

What is Late Deceleration?

Due to uteroplacental because the placenta cannot provide oxygen and nutrients

213

What are the CSF lab values for Meningitis?

PMN's -> BacteriaT cells / Macrophages -> Non-bacterialNormal Glucose -> Viral

214

What is the Clotting Cascade?

The cascade that stops you when you bleed

215

What is the MOA of Statins?

Inhibit HMG CoA reductase

216

What are the Holosystolic murmurs?

Tricuspid RegurgMitral RegurgVSD

217

What is Stage 1 of Labor?

Starts with the onset of true labor and lasts until the cervix is completely dilated to 10 cm

218

What are the Vasculitis associated with LOW C3?

"PMS in Salt Lake City"Post-Strep GNMembranoproliferativeGlomerulonephritis Type IISub Bacterial endocarditisSerum SicknessLupusCryoglobulinemia

219

What is the MOA of albuterol?

B2 agonist; relaxes bronchial smooth muscle

220

What is Factitious?

Fake illness to get attention, seeks medical treatment, have a lot of medical knowledge.Tx: Supportive psychotherapy

221

What is Condyloma Acuminata?

Verrucous "cauliflower" warts, koilocytes, due to HPV 6 and 11

222

What is Osmotic Diarrhea?

High osmolality in the bowel pulling water into the lumen

223

What defines Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

EBV and may have Reed-Sternberg cells

224

What is Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn?

Rh+ mom's blood mixes the Rh- fetal blood in first pregnancyNo risk to this childAll pregnancies to follow will be a risk, leading to a fetal demise

225

What is associated with Chlamydia Pneumonia?

Staccato coughing, parasite with DNA and RNAs:Elementary body (Infectious phase) Reticulate Body (resting phase - can't divide)

226

What is the only Gram-positive Diplococci?

Streptococcus Pneumonia

227

What is the humoral immune response?

B-cells and PMN's patrol the blood looking for bacteria

228

What are the Adverse Effects of Infliximab?

Respiratory infection (including reactivation of latent TB) fever, hypotension

229

What are the indications for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?

Strong decrease LDLDecrease TriglyceridesIncrease HDL

230

What does a Galactokinase deficiency cause?

Cataracts

231

What is the most common extracellular buffer?

Bicarb

232

What is associated with Bacillus Cereus?

Fried rice syndrome, preformed toxin

233

What is Compensation?

Doing something different of what you used to do

234

What is the color of air on X-ray?

Black "radiolucent"

235

What stage of the menstrual cycle has the highest Temperature?

Ovulatory stage, body temp will rise One degree during ovulation

236

What bug loves the DCML tract?

Treponema

237

What are the indications for 2nd generation H1 Blockers?

Allergies

238

Who Makes the Trophoblast?

Baby

239

Waht is the rate-limiting enzyme in Cholesterol syntesis?

HMG CoA Reductase

240

What makes an adequate sputum sample?

<10 epithelial cells and >25 leukocytes per low power field

241

What are the indications from Magnesium?

Effective in Torsades and Dig toxicity

242

What are the adverse effects of Salmeterol?

Tremor and arrhythmia

243

What is the indication for Isoproterenol?

Bronchoconstriction due to sympathetic tone

244

What is Pathological Gambling?

Can't stop gambling, affects others

245

What is the sign of a Clavicle Fracture?

Asymmeteric Moro reflex

246

What is an Astrocytoma?

Rosenthal fibers - #1 in kids with occipital headache

247

What is Heavy Chain Disease?

Increased IgA

248

What GI disease has a Bird's Beak on X-Ray?

Achalasia (Think Chagas disease)

249

What is Carcinoid syndrome?

Flushing, wheezing, diarrhea

250

What are the Indications for Glitazones/Thiazolidinedione's?

NIDDM. (Type 2)

251

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

Increased cysts. No ovulation due to no Progesterone, leads to increased Endometrial CA, they cannot inhibit LH, obese, hairy, acne

252

What is the CBC for every basculitis?

Decreased: RBC and plateletsIncreased: WBC, T-Cells, Monocytes, Schistocytes, ESR

253

What is associated with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae?

Bullous myringitis, Ground Glass CXR, P-1 Protein, Erythema Multiforme

254

What are the risk factors for Primary Liver Cancer?

Hepatitis B & C, Aflatoxin, Alcohol, Smoking and Hemochromatosis

255

What are the Pyrimidines?

C, U, T

256

What are the Adverse Effects of Desmopressin (DDAVP)/ADH?

Over hydration and allergic reaction

257

What is a Sliding Hiatal Hernia?

Fundus of the stomach herniates through the Esophageal Hiatus into the Thorax

258

What is t1/2?

Half-life, the time it takes the body to use half of the drug ingested

259

What is the job of the early distal tubule?

Concentrate urine by reabsorbing NaCl

260

What is the thyroid hormone levels during Pregnancy?

Increased TBG - leads to increased total T4 (Bound and free)

261

What is seen with Varicella (Chickenpox)?

Red macule clear vesicle on red dotPus and scabbingvarious stages of healing

262

What is Cabot's Ring body?

Seen in Vitamin B12 Deficiency and lead poisoning

263

What is intra-Renal Failure?

Damaged Glomerulus or tubules; BUN: Creatinine Ratio <20/1

264

What is Tetralogy of Fallot?

Overriding aorta: Aorta sits on intraventricular Septum giving rise to a VSD, this in turn causes Pulmonary Stenosis and ultimately right heart failure (boot shape x-ray)

265

What organs do not require insulin to absorb glucose?

"BRICKLE": Brain, RBC, Intestine, Cardiac / Cornea, Kidney, Liver and Exercising muscle

266

What receptors do Protein Hormones use?

Cell membrane receptors

267

What is an Esophageal Atresia with a TE Fistula (C-Type)?

Baby vomits with first feeding, large gastric bubble and distended abdomen (failure of apoptosis)

268

What is Metachromatic Leukodystrophy?

Arylsulfatase A defieciencychildhood multiple sclerosis with Ataxia/Dementiaaccumulation of Cerebroside Sulfate

269

What are the catabolic pathways that create energy? (Occur in the Mitochondria)

Acetyl-CoA production, Beta-oxidation, citric acid cycle, Ketogenesis, Ox Phos

270

What are Plasma Neoplasms?

They produce many antibodies

271

What does the Direct Coombs Test tell you?

ANtibody on surface (seen in hemolytic anemia)

272

What are the Adverse Effects of Metoclopramide?

Increased Parkinsonian effects, restlessness, drowsiness, fatigue, depression, nausea, diarrheaDrug interaction with digoxin and diabetic agentscontraindicated in small bowel obstruction

273

What does Glucagon do?

Active in Gluconeogenesis, Glucogenolysis, Lipolysis, and Ketogenesis

274

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Purine synthesis?

Glutamine - PRPP

275

What is Alzheimer's disease?

Decreased ach in nucleus basalis of Meynert, bad Apo-E4, Amyloid Plaques, Neurofibrillary Tangles of Tau proteins

276

What is Essential Thrombocythemia?

Very high platelets increased RBC's and WBC's

277

What does Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do?

Conserves water (V2 aquaporin receptors) and vasoconstriction

278

What does Tracheal deviation tell you?

Moves away from tensionPneumothorax moves towards Atelectasis

279

What CA risk does VHL have?

RCC

280

What GI disease has a Corkscrew on X-Ray?

Esophageal spasm and Volvus

281

What is Carcinoid Syndrome (Triad)?

Diarrhea, flushing and wheezing

282

Can you try a Vaginal Delivery on a woman who had a LOW Transverse C-Section previously?

Yes, 70% are okay, Potential for uterine wall rupture

283

What is Crohn's Disease?

Transmural, Cobblestones, Melena, Creepig Fat, Fistula, Skip lesions

284

What are Loose Associations?

Ideas switch subjects, incoherent

285

What is Idealization?

They see only the good in someone despite evidence to the contrary

286

What GI disease has a stacked coin on X-Ray?

Intussusception

287

What is Tangentiality?

Wanders off the point

288

What is Graft vs. Host Disease?

When the graft attacks the body (T-Killer cells and macrophages responded)

289

What are the Indications for Infliximab?

Crohn's Disease, Rheumatoid arthritis

290

What is the time course of the inflammatory response?

1 hour: swellingDay 1: PMN's show upDay 3: PMN's peakDay 4: Monocytes/Macrophages and T-cells show upDay 7: Monocytes/ Macrophages and T-cells peak, Fibroblasts arriveDay 30: Fibroblasts peakMonth 3-6: Fibroblasts complete scar formation

291

What has Tubular Casts?

Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)

292

What is the risk of Chorionic Villus Sampling?

Fetal limb defects. (Done at 9-12 weeks)

293

What is Karyorrhexis?

Nucleus fragments

294

What is Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia?

IgM and Hyperviscosity of the blood

295

What are Pencil Cell/ Cigar Cell?

Seen in iron deficiency anemia

296

What is Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

Anti-Mitochondrial antibody Bile ducts are destroyedXanthelasmas present and pruritis

297

What is factitious hypoglycemia?

Exogenous insulin use, labs show elevated insulin and decreased C-peptide

298

What are the adverse effects of the Ca2+ channel blockers?

Flushing, edema, constipation, CHF, AV block

299

What disease does Coxsackie B cause?

Endocarditis, DM Type I

300

When do you give RhoGam?

1st Dose: Week 28 gestation2nd Dose: 72 hours post-deliveryAny time a procedure would mix mom and fetal blood

301

What are the IgA Nephropathies?

HSPBerger'sAlport Syndrome

302

What is Paracrine?

Works on its neighbor. (except sweat gland)

303

What does "Cytosis" tell you?

High levels

304

What is Justification?

Making excuses for behavior afterwards

305

What are the Biguanides drugs?

Metformin

306

What are the glycogenic amino acids?

His, Met, Val

307

What are the indications for Hydralazine?

Severe HTN, 1st line treatment for HTN in pregnancy

308

What are the hormones with disulfide bonds?

"PIIG": Prolactin, Insulin, Inhibin, GH (growth hormone)

309

How do i know the patient has a Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Deficiency?

Angular Cheilosis

310

What does Vit B9 do?

Nuclear division (Synthesis of Nitrogenous bases for RNA and DNA)

311

What is Glanzmann's?

Baby with bleeding from skin and mucosa (LOW GP-2b3a)

312

What is Exhibitionism?

Exposure to others

313

How does the Sympathetic System behave?

Opposite of Parasympathetic:ConstipationUrinary retentionMydriasis - "Eyes wide with fright"TachycardiaBronchodilateEjaculation "Shoot"Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)Xerostomia (Dry mouth)

314

What is the Mechanism of Action of Sulfonylureas?

Closes K+ channel in the pancreatic Beta cell membrane, Reduces K+ efflux & increases Ca (2+) influx, and cell depolarize to increase secretion of insulin

315

What does the Progesterone Challenge Test tell you?

Vaginal bleeding if she has estrogen. If she does not bleed, she has no E2 or ovariesIncreased FSH: Ovary problemDecreased FSH: Pituitary problem

316

What are the classifications of MHC-1?

HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C

317

How does chlamydia present?

Cervicitis (Yellow pus), conjunctivitis, PID

318

What is Total Anomalous Pulmonary return?

All pulmonary veins enter into the right atrium (Snowman x-ray)

319

What is the rate-limiting enzyme in Ketogenesis?

HMG CoA Synthase

320

What is Herpes?

ds DNA virus

321

What is the Stage II of Labor?

Continues after the cervix is dilated to 10 cm until the delivery of the baby

322

What is the difference between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin?

Hererochromatin = tightly coileddarkerTranscriptionally inactiveEuchromatin = loose (10nm fibers)lighter

323

What are the LIVE Vaccines?

"Bring Your Own Very Small Virus and MMR"B - BCGY - Yellow FeverO - OPV (Sabin) = oral polioV - VaricellaS - SmallpoxV - RotavirusM - Measles = RubeolaM - MumpsR - Rubella = German 3 day measles

324

What murmur has a regular-irregular pulse?

PVC

325

What disease has a Thumb Sign on neck films?

Epiglottitis

326

What is Restrictive Lung disease?

small still lungs, can't get air in

327

What symptoms does a "less likely to depolarize" state have?

Brain: lethargic, mental status changes, depressionSkeletal Muscle: weakness, SOBSmooth Muscle: constipation then diarrheaCardiac: hypotension, bradycardia

328

What are the indications for Ezetimibe?

Decrease LDL

329

What are the Class IC antiarrhythmic?

Flecainide, Encainide, Propafenone

330

What is the effect of Alcohol on the fetus?

FASSmooth philtrumshortpolyclonalmidface hypoplasiathin superior Vermilion border

331

What is the Mechanism of Action of Insulin?

Pushes K+ into the cell,Liver: Increases Glucose storage as Glycogen, Increases Triglyceride synthesis.Muscle: Increases protein and glycogen synthesis.Adipose Tissue: Improves Triglycerde storage by activating Lipoprotein Lipase, Decrease circulating Free Fatty Acids

332

What causes Chancroid?

Haemophilus Ducreyi

333

What is Telephone Scatologia?

Phone Sex

334

What is the MOA of ARBS?

Ang II blockers, prevernt alpha 1 vasoconstriction from Ang II

335

What is a Missed Abortion?

Cervix is closed, no fetal remnantsTx. D&C

336

What type of kidney stones have envelope or dumbbell-shaped crystals?

oxalate

337

What does the E Ab tell you?

Low transmissibility

338

What is the cause of large babies?

DM or twin-twin transfusions

339

What are the indications for Nitroprusside?

Hypertensive emergency, CHF, Angina

340

What is the MOA of cromolyn?

Prevents release of mediators from mast cells

341

What is Bismuth and Sucralfate used for?

Increase ulcer healing, traveler's diarrhea

342

What is a SIderoblast?

Macrophages pregnant with Iron (caused by genetics and or multiple transfusions)

343

What is the MOA of Bile Acid resins?

Prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids, Liver must use cholesterol to make more

344

What are the sympathoplegics?

Metoprolol, Atenolol, Acebutolol, Esmolol, Propranolol, Timolol, Carvedilol, Prazosin, Clonidine, Methyldopa, Hexamethonium, Reserpine, Guanethidine

345

What is the MOA of Salmeterol?

B2 agonist; relaxes bronchial smooth muscle

346

What is Bronchitis?

Increased sputum production "Blue Bloater"

347

What is Type 2A Hyperlipidemia?

Defective LDL-Clathrin Pit or B-100 (LDL are elevated)

348

What will you see with Anemia of Chronic Disease?

Decreased TIBC

349

What will you see with Sideroblastic Anemia?

Decreased dALA synthase common with blood transfusions

350

What are the adverse effects of Hexamethonium?

Severe orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, constipation, sexual dysfunction

351

What is the MOA of the K+ channel blockers?

Increase AP duration, increase effective refractory period (ERP), increase QT interval

352

What is Plummer-Vinson Syndrome?

esophageal webbing at the UES, spoon nails from iron deficiency anemia

353

What is Cholestasis?

Obstructed bile ductHigh Alk Phos (if in the common bile duct)

354

What is transposition of the great arteries?

Aorticopulmonary septum did not spiral, most common congenital cyanotic heart disease in the first month of life (Neural crest cell migration problem)

355

What is Trichotillomania?

They pull out their own hair and eat it

356

What is McCune-Albright?

Precocious sexual development, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia "whorls of connective tissue", "coast of Maine" pigemented skin macules

357

What is associated with Vibrio Parahaemolyticus?

Raw Fish, Gs Stimulation via ADP- ribosylation = HIGH cAMP, Turns the on... on

358

How fast should B-HCG rise?

Shoulde double every 2 days until 10 weeks, stops when placenta is fully formed

359

What are the indications for Methacholine?

Asthma challenge test

360

What are some causes of Vitamine B12 deficiency?

TapewormsVeganismType A gastritisPernicious Anemia

361

What does Vit D do?

Mineralization of bones and teeth

362

What are the newborn screening tests?

"Please Check Baby Before Going Home"P - PKUC - CAH/ CFB - Biotinidase/ Beta- ThalassemiaG - GalactosemiaH - Hypothyroidism/ Homocystinuria

363

What are the most common causes of mental retardation in the US?

FAS, Fragile X and Down's Syndrome

364

What is Wiskott-Aldrich?

Low IgM, Low PlateletsHigh IgAEczemaPetechiaeX-linked

365

What is achondroplasia (Laron Dwarf)?

Patient with abnormal FGF receptors in exremities. (abnormal FGF3)

366

What is Hemosiderosis?

Fe overload in bone marrow

367

What is Poikilocytosis?

RBC's of different shapes

368

What are the Adverse Effects of Mimetics?

Hypoglycemia, Nausea, Diarrhea

369

What can high Triglycerides Cause?

Pancreatitis

370

What is the MOA of a muscarinic antagonist?

competitively block muscarinic receptors preventing bronchoconstriction

371

What are the methylxanthines?

Theophylline

372

What is the function of T3 and T4?

Growth and differentiation

373

What is Histrionic Personality Disorder?

Theatrical, sexually provocative, use repression

374

What diseases have Respiratory Alkalosis?

Restrictive Lung diseaseAnxietyPregnancyGram neg sepsisPE

375

What does Fe2+ do?

Hb function, electron transport

376

What is RhoGam?

Anti-D IgG

377

What is Pyromania?

Sets fires for the fun of it

378

How does DKA present?

Kussmaul respirations, fruity breath (acetone), and altered mental status

379

What is assocaited with Strep Bovis?

Colon Cancer, black pigment

380

What hepatitis B labs indicate non-infectious state?

HBeAg-

381

What bugs cause Bloody Diarrhea?

"CASES": Campylobacter, AMoeba (Entamoeba Histolytica), Shigella, E. coli and Salmonella

382

What are the only arteries with deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary and umbilical arteries

383

What are the Long Acting Insulin drugs?

Ultralente, Glargine, and Protamine

384

What is Sarcoidosis?

Non-caseating granulomas, eggshell calcification around lymph nodes

385

What sound radiates to the axilla?

Mitral regurgitation

386

How is Major Depression diagnosed?

Need 5 of 8 "SIGECAPS" for over 2 weeksSleep disturbance: wake in early or wake up lateInterest/ libido lossGuiltEnergy LossConcentration LossAppetite LossPsychomotor AgitationSuicidal Ideation (hopelessness)

387

What does somatostatin do?

Inhibits secretin, motilin, and CCK

388

What is the Adverse Effect of Sulfonylureas?

Hypoglycemia, GI disturbances, Muscle weakness, mental confusion, Sulfur allergy