Complications & Problems: IV & Blood Transfusions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Complications & Problems: IV & Blood Transfusions Deck (17):
1

 

IV flowing in too fast

IV bag may be too high, lower it

2

IV flowing in too slow

IV bag is low, raise it

3

IV catheter comes out before we want it to 

Use tape to secure it in place

4

Blood backs up in IV tubing

Flush IV tubing with saline syringe 

5

Bubbles present in IV tubing

Flick, stretch tubing

Use empty syringe & pull bubbles out from port

6

Infiltration 

Needle dislodged from vein resulting in fluid going into tissues

  • S/S: cold/ swollen pale hand/arm 
  • Tx: Discontinue the IV & restart elsewhere
  • Prevention: Tape IV catheter well to prevent movement 

7

Phlebitis

Inflammation of the vein from trauma, bacterial invasion, or irritating medication (K+

  • S/S: warmth, redness, streak up the arm, tenderness/pain 
  • Tx: Discontinue IV, apply warm pack & elevate arm, restart on other arm 
  • Prevention: sterile technique 

8

Thrombus 

Clot in the vein 

  • S/S: redness, warmth, IV won't flow
  • Tx: Don't massage or flush IV, discontinue IV & restart, apply warm compress
  • Prevention: tape well & don't let IV stop flowing too long 

9

Embolus 

Clot or air bubble floating around in the blood

(thrombus when it breaks free)

  • S/S: pain in lung or decreased LOC
  • Tx: EMERGENCY!!! Call code GIVE OXYGEN 
  • Prevention: no air bubble in IV lines, prevent phebitis & thrombus 

10

Fluid Overload

Too much fluid for the body to handle

  • S/S: fluid in the lungs, dyspea, increase heart & respiratory rate
  • Tx: Check VS, decrease IV flow rate, have pt. SIT UP, call MD
  • Prevention: Check flow rate frequently, listen to lungs, use IV pump on children, elderly, or frail 

11

Starting IV

  • Find a straight vein
  • Non-dominate hand/side
  • Not the wrist area
  • Start near or on the hand and work up (distal to proximal) 

12

Taping IV securely

  • Tape the needle down so that tubing can be changed w/o disturbing the dressing
  • Often a saline lock is used 

13

Tape "Research" 

  • Take is not sterile
  • Don't place tape near the skin puncture site
  • Only cover the puncture site with Tegaderm (sterile) 

14

Dressing an IV

  • Clear dressing are used (Tegaderm) 
    • Protects from water & bacteria
    • Clear dressings don't let air in
    • Can assess area w/o disturbing anything 

15

Allergic/ Febrile

Sensitivity to WBC or plasma proteins

  • S/S: sudden chills, Temp 101, HA, hives, itching, anaphylatic shock
  • Action: STOP transfusion 
    • Keep vein open with saline
      • Call MD
        • May order Tylenol or Benadyl (antihistamine) 

16

Hemolytic 

From incompatible blood products 

Antibody reaction resulting in RBC destruction

  • S/S: Immediate (<10 mL), lower back pain, fever, chills, shock
    • Kidney failure
    • Shock
  • Cause: HUMAN ERROR
  • Action: STOP transfusion 
    • KVO w/ saline, monitor VS, call MD
    • Blood & urine samples must be taken
    • Blood, tubing, & filter sent to the lab for analysis 

17

Circulatory Overload

Too much fluid for heart to pump

  • S/S: dry cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema
  • Action: Slow infusion rate, check VS, raise pt.'s HOB, one unit at a time