Complications & Problems: IV & Blood Transfusions Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Final > Complications & Problems: IV & Blood Transfusions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Complications & Problems: IV & Blood Transfusions Deck (17):


IV flowing in too fast

IV bag may be too high, lower it


IV flowing in too slow

IV bag is low, raise it


IV catheter comes out before we want it to 

Use tape to secure it in place


Blood backs up in IV tubing

Flush IV tubing with saline syringe 


Bubbles present in IV tubing

Flick, stretch tubing

Use empty syringe & pull bubbles out from port



Needle dislodged from vein resulting in fluid going into tissues

  • S/S: cold/ swollen pale hand/arm 
  • Tx: Discontinue the IV & restart elsewhere
  • Prevention: Tape IV catheter well to prevent movement 



Inflammation of the vein from trauma, bacterial invasion, or irritating medication (K+

  • S/S: warmth, redness, streak up the arm, tenderness/pain 
  • Tx: Discontinue IV, apply warm pack & elevate arm, restart on other arm 
  • Prevention: sterile technique 



Clot in the vein 

  • S/S: redness, warmth, IV won't flow
  • Tx: Don't massage or flush IV, discontinue IV & restart, apply warm compress
  • Prevention: tape well & don't let IV stop flowing too long 



Clot or air bubble floating around in the blood

(thrombus when it breaks free)

  • S/S: pain in lung or decreased LOC
  • Tx: EMERGENCY!!! Call code GIVE OXYGEN 
  • Prevention: no air bubble in IV lines, prevent phebitis & thrombus 


Fluid Overload

Too much fluid for the body to handle

  • S/S: fluid in the lungs, dyspea, increase heart & respiratory rate
  • Tx: Check VS, decrease IV flow rate, have pt. SIT UP, call MD
  • Prevention: Check flow rate frequently, listen to lungs, use IV pump on children, elderly, or frail 


Starting IV

  • Find a straight vein
  • Non-dominate hand/side
  • Not the wrist area
  • Start near or on the hand and work up (distal to proximal) 


Taping IV securely

  • Tape the needle down so that tubing can be changed w/o disturbing the dressing
  • Often a saline lock is used 


Tape "Research" 

  • Take is not sterile
  • Don't place tape near the skin puncture site
  • Only cover the puncture site with Tegaderm (sterile) 


Dressing an IV

  • Clear dressing are used (Tegaderm) 
    • Protects from water & bacteria
    • Clear dressings don't let air in
    • Can assess area w/o disturbing anything 


Allergic/ Febrile

Sensitivity to WBC or plasma proteins

  • S/S: sudden chills, Temp 101, HA, hives, itching, anaphylatic shock
  • Action: STOP transfusion 
    • Keep vein open with saline
      • Call MD
        • May order Tylenol or Benadyl (antihistamine) 



From incompatible blood products 

Antibody reaction resulting in RBC destruction

  • S/S: Immediate (<10 mL), lower back pain, fever, chills, shock
    • Kidney failure
    • Shock
  • Cause: HUMAN ERROR
  • Action: STOP transfusion 
    • KVO w/ saline, monitor VS, call MD
    • Blood & urine samples must be taken
    • Blood, tubing, & filter sent to the lab for analysis 


Circulatory Overload

Too much fluid for heart to pump

  • S/S: dry cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema
  • Action: Slow infusion rate, check VS, raise pt.'s HOB, one unit at a time