Pharmacology is defined as the science and study of all medications/drugs.
Pharmacodynamics is how medications affect and interact with the body (the pathophysiology of the medication).
What are the two names for medication(s)?
Medications will have a generic and a trade name.
What does the abbreviation OTC mean?
OTC refers to over-the-counter medications.
Routes of medication administration
Routes of medication administration:
- Oral (PO)
- Intramuscular injection (IM)
- Intranasal (IN)
- Sublingual (SL)
- Intravenous (IV)
Intravenous (IV) drug administration has the slowest absorption rate.
Oral (PO) and transdermal have the slowest absorption rates.
What are the "Six Rights" of medication administration?
- Right patient
- Right medication
- Right dose
- Right route
- Right time
- Right documentation
Gels, compressed tablets, and suspensions are an example of __________ _______.
What is/are the contraindication(s) for administrating activated charcoal (Actidose with Sorbitol)?
Activated charcoal may not be administered if the patient is unable to follow directions because of a decrease in their mentation or ingested petroleum substances, caustics, or corrosives.
What are two concerns of why activated charcoal should not be administered to a lethargic patient, or a patient with decreased mentation?
1. Patient is unable to protect their own airway
2. Improper charcoal administration may cause the patient to aspirate
What is the indication and dose for the administration of aspirin (ASA or Bayer)?
160 to 325 mg chewable aspirin may be given to a patient complaining of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or chest pain that is believed to be of cardiac origin.
What is the pharmacodynamics of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) like Proventil?
Proventil stimulates the nervous system to cause bronchodilation.
What is the indication, dose, and route for the administration of Epinephrine (EpiPen)?
An EpiPen is administered when a patient is suffering from anaphylaxis and is dosed for an adult as 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg for children. Route is intramuscular injection IM).
When giving naloxone (Narcan), the provider should administer the medication in increments and at an appropriate rate otherwise, the patient can become _________.
Translate the following medication order:
Administer 0.4 mg Nitromist SL Q 3 - 5 minutes, max at 3 doses. Administer until relief, drop in BP, or arrival.
Administer 0.4 milligrams (mg) of Nitro spray (Nitromist) under the patient's tongue (SL) every (Q) 3 to 5 minutes. Maximum (Max) administrations of medication are limited to 3 doses. Administer as above until relief of the patient's chest pain, a significant drop in their blood pressure, or arrival at the hospital or ALS arrival on the scene.
The dose of oral glucose is 1/2 to 1 tube of gel.
The grams of glucose in a "tube" may change depending on different manufactures. The dose of glucose is 15 to 25 grams administered buccally (between the cheek and gum).
What is the indication for the administration of oxygen (O2)?
O2 should be administered if you suspect the patient is hypoxic or is demonstrating signs/symptoms of hypoxia.
Most commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) medications
The most common OTC medications are:
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
- Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
- Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin).
It is unnecessary to "reassess" the patient if they feel better after receiving a medication intervention.
After every medication intervention, the patient must be reassessed, and the assessment documented.
What percentage of oxygen saturation should be maintained for a patient presenting with the signs/symptoms of a stroke?
The pulse oximetry reading should be maintained to 94% to 96% O2 saturation.
Of the basic EMT pharmacology formulary, which of the medications is weight-based dosing?
How are pounds (lb) converted to kilograms (kg)?
Divide the number of pounds by 2.2.
lb 170 lb
2.2 2.2 = 77 kg
The reversal of respiratory depression for a suspected opioid overdose is the action of what medication?
Internal bleeding, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions are all possible side effects of what medication?
Aspirin (ASA, Bayer)
What route is accessed when administering epinephrine?
Nitroglycerin is provided in three forms.
Compressed tablet, atomized, and paste.
You notice your partner has just administered three nitro tablets sub-lingually and simultaneously. In the worst-case scenario, how do think the patient will respond?
The patient will become hypotensive, and if untreated can result in cardiac arrest and even death.
Polypharmacy is defined as multiple or many medications.
Is activated charcoal considered a solution or suspension?
When calling in for a medication order from a physician, it is necessary to repeat the order back and attain the name of the physician providing the order.
It is also required to document the dose, time, response, and name of the doctor giving the order.