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Flashcards in Comprehensive Final Deck (146):
1

The study of structure and form

Anatomy

2

Examination of larger structures that's visible to the eye

Gross anatomy

3

Examination of structures that require magnification to be seen

Microscopic anatomy

4

Study of function

Physiology

5

Smallest unit of matter exhibiting characteristics of an element

Atom

6

Ability to maintain consistent internal environment

homeostasis

7

Vertical plane that separates anterior from posterior

frontal plane

8

Vertical plane down the midline dividing the body into equal left and right parts

midsagittal

9

Does not directly run down midline dividing body into unequal left and right parts

sagittal

10

Plane is perpendicular to the long axis and separates superior from inferior

transverse

11

space that lies between the pleura, the two thin membranes that line and surround the lungs

Pleural cavity

12

What are the 4 tissue types?

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

13

Effector activation opposes or negates the original stimulus; make it opposite

negative feedback

14

Stimulus is reinforced until a climatic event occurs; keeps going

positive feedback

15

Number of protons in an ion

atomic number

16

Solutes which release a hydrogen ion

acid

17

Solutes which bind with hydrogen ions

base

18

What are the 6 functions of water?

Transport, lubrication, universal solvent, cushion, temperature regulation, surface tension

19

Hands to the sides with palms facing forward and feet together

anatomical position

20

positive ion

cation

21

negative ion

anion

22

What are the 4 types of organic compounds?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

23

Energy source for cell

carbohydrates

24

what are some examples of carbohydrates?

sugar –ose stuff

25

Cushioning organs, form barriers, regulates temperature energy storage, insulation

lipids

26

what are some examples of lipids?

fats and steroids

27

Catalyze reactions, storage, transport, support, movement

proteins

28

what are some examples of proteins?

enzyme, myosin, actin

29

Genetic information, protein synthesis

nucleic acids

30

what are some examples of nucleic acids?

DNA, RNA

31

Cell membrane shrinks

crenate

32

Cell membrane blows up

hemolysis

33

Collective term for all biochemical reactions in a living organism

metabolism

34

Breaks molecules into smaller subunits

decomposition

35

Assembles large molecules from smaller subunits

synthesis

36

Releases energy

exergonic

37

requires energy

endergonic

38

diffusion of water

osmosis

39

net movement of particles down their concentration gradient

diffusion

40

reactants for cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2

41

products for cellular respiration

6CO2 + 6H2O

42

What are the steps of cellular respiration?

Glycolysis, Intermediate Stage, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain

43

Where does glycolysis take place?

cytosol

44

Where does the intermediate stage take place?

mitochondria

45

Where does the citric acid cycle take place?

mitochondria

46

solution does not cause water to flow in or out of the cell

isotonic

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solution resultes in osmotic flow into the cell, causes cell to swell

hypotonic

48

resultes in osmotic flow out of the cell, causes cell to shrivel

hypertonic

49

vesicles within cell fuse with plasma membrane to release contents

exocytosis

50

formation of a vesicle at the cell surface to bring material into the cell

endocytosis

51

doesn't require ATP

passive transport

52

requires ATP

active transport

53

study of tissues

histology

54

Study and treatment of the integumentary system

dermatology

55

What are the 3 skin layers?

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

56

what is the epidermis made up of?

stratified squamous epithelium

57

what is the dermis made up of?

dense irregular connective tissue

58

what is the hypodermis made up of?

collagen and elastic fiber

59

fine, unpigmented downy hair on fetus in third trimester

lanugo

60

fine, unpigmented/ lightly pigmented hair on limbs

vellus

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coarse, pigmented hair on scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, etc.

terminal

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localized overgrowth of melanocytes

mole

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localized increase in melanocyte activity

freckle

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keratinized sweat cells which are tightly compacted

nails

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protects from UV radiation

melanin

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melanin cell

melanocyte

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glands that secrete their products through ducts opening onto an epithelium

exocrine

68

glands that secrete their products into the bloodstream

endocrine

69

oil glands

sebaceous

70

merocrine gland secreting a watery solution for flushing epidermal surface

sweat gland

71

protects abrasion and is water resistant

keratin

72

steroid important for calcium metabolism

vitamin D3

73

where is vitamin D3 formed?

skin

74

bones of girdles and limbs

appendicular

75

Bones of skull, thorax, and vertebral column

axial

76

mature bone cell

osteocyte

77

bone builders

osteoblast

78

break down bone

osteoclast

79

What are examples of short bone?

carpals, tarsals

80

what are examples of irregular bone?

sphenoid, ethmoid, vertebrae

81

forms majority of bones

endochondral ossification

82

forms dermal bones

intramembranous ossificiation

83

functional category where the joint is immoble

synarthrosis

84

functional category where the joint has slight movement

amphiarthrosis

85

functional category where the joint has free movement

diarthrosis

86

what is an example of a ball and socket joint?

hip, shoulder

87

what is an example of a hinge joint?

elbow, knee

88

what is an example of a plane joint?

intercarpal/tarsal

89

what is an example of a condylar joint?

wrist

90

what is an example of a pivot joint?

atlas/axis

91

what is an example of a saddle joint?

thumb

92

what makes up a neuron?

axon, dendrite, soma

93

What makes up the CNS?

brain, spinal cord

94

Information processing, coordinating and distributing commands, memory storage

CNS

95

What makes up the PNS?

nerves, ganglion

96

Collection of axons in the PNS

nerves

97

Collection of cell bodies in the PNS

ganglion

98

Relay sensory to CNS, relay motor from CNS

PNS

99

Relay sensory information gained from receptors to CNS

sensory

100

Initiates and transmits commands from CNS to effectors

motor

101

Small cells with all processes looking alike

anaxonic

102

Cell body lays off to the side of along continuous process which fuses the dendrites directly to the axon

unipolar

103

Small cells with 2 distinct processes

bipolar

104

Have multiple processes coming of cell body with one being a distinct axon

multipolar

105

makes blood brain barrier

astrocyte

106

Line fluid filled passageways of the CNS to produce, monitor, circulate cerebral spinal fluid

ependymal

107

Move throughout the CNS to phagocytize cellular debris, waste, and pathogens

microglia

108

Stabilize position of axons in CNS as well as producing myelin

oligodendrocyte

109

Surround cell bodies in the ganglia to regulate environment around them in the PNS

satellite cell

110

Forms myelin sheath around axons in PNS

schwann cell

111

what is the resting membrane potential?

-70mV

112

what are the synapse components?

synaptic cleft, presynaptic, postsynaptic

113

What is the threshold membrane potential?

-55mV

114

Change in transmembrane potential that once initiated spread through the entire membrane

action potential

115

lobe for motor movement

frontal

116

lobe for sensory

parietal

117

lobe for vision

occipital

118

lobe for auditory and smell

temporal

119

lobe for gustation

insula

120

what makes up the diencephalon

thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus

121

what makes up the brainstem

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

122

Change in transmembrane potential making the cell more negative

hyperpolarization

123

Return to resting transmembrane potential

repolarization

124

Change in transmembrane potential from a smaller negative value or positive value

depolarization

125

Location of myelinated axons

white matter

126

Collection of cell bodies

gray matter

127

Establish emotional state, link conscious and unconscious function, role in memory storage/retrieval, control flight or fight response, link emotion with memory

limbic system

128

What are the general senses?

Pain, temperature, touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception

129

what are the special senses?

sight, hearing, olfaction, equilibrium, gustation (organ housing)

130

rest and digest

parasympathetic

131

fight or flight

sympathetic

132

Increases heart rate, breathing, sweating and decreases digestion

sympathetic

133

decreases heart rate, breathing, sweating, and increases digestion

parasympathetic

134

Innermost layer directly attached to neural tissue

pia mater

135

Middle layer of meninges

arachnoid mater

136

Outermost layer of meninges

dura mater

137

what are the steps to the reflex arc?

receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron ,motor neuron, effector

138

Fast adaptation

phasic

139

what are some examples of phasic receptors?

Pressure, temperature

140

slow adaptation

tonic

141

what are some examples of tonic receptors?

Pain, light, proprioception

142

Detect chemicals

chemoreceptors

143

Respond to distortion in plasma membrane

mechanoreceptors

144

pain receptors

nocioceptors

145

Detects change in temperature

thermoreceptors

146

Light receptors in retina of the eye

photoreceptors