Flashcards in Comprehensive Final Deck (146):
The study of structure and form
Examination of larger structures that's visible to the eye
Examination of structures that require magnification to be seen
Study of function
Smallest unit of matter exhibiting characteristics of an element
Ability to maintain consistent internal environment
Vertical plane that separates anterior from posterior
Vertical plane down the midline dividing the body into equal left and right parts
Does not directly run down midline dividing body into unequal left and right parts
Plane is perpendicular to the long axis and separates superior from inferior
space that lies between the pleura, the two thin membranes that line and surround the lungs
What are the 4 tissue types?
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
Effector activation opposes or negates the original stimulus; make it opposite
Stimulus is reinforced until a climatic event occurs; keeps going
Number of protons in an ion
Solutes which release a hydrogen ion
Solutes which bind with hydrogen ions
What are the 6 functions of water?
Transport, lubrication, universal solvent, cushion, temperature regulation, surface tension
Hands to the sides with palms facing forward and feet together
What are the 4 types of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Energy source for cell
what are some examples of carbohydrates?
sugar –ose stuff
Cushioning organs, form barriers, regulates temperature energy storage, insulation
what are some examples of lipids?
fats and steroids
Catalyze reactions, storage, transport, support, movement
what are some examples of proteins?
enzyme, myosin, actin
Genetic information, protein synthesis
what are some examples of nucleic acids?
Cell membrane shrinks
Cell membrane blows up
Collective term for all biochemical reactions in a living organism
Breaks molecules into smaller subunits
Assembles large molecules from smaller subunits
diffusion of water
net movement of particles down their concentration gradient
reactants for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
products for cellular respiration
6CO2 + 6H2O
What are the steps of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, Intermediate Stage, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
Where does glycolysis take place?
Where does the intermediate stage take place?
Where does the citric acid cycle take place?
solution does not cause water to flow in or out of the cell
solution resultes in osmotic flow into the cell, causes cell to swell
resultes in osmotic flow out of the cell, causes cell to shrivel
vesicles within cell fuse with plasma membrane to release contents
formation of a vesicle at the cell surface to bring material into the cell
doesn't require ATP
study of tissues
Study and treatment of the integumentary system
What are the 3 skin layers?
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
what is the epidermis made up of?
stratified squamous epithelium
what is the dermis made up of?
dense irregular connective tissue
what is the hypodermis made up of?
collagen and elastic fiber
fine, unpigmented downy hair on fetus in third trimester
fine, unpigmented/ lightly pigmented hair on limbs
coarse, pigmented hair on scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, etc.
localized overgrowth of melanocytes
localized increase in melanocyte activity
keratinized sweat cells which are tightly compacted
protects from UV radiation
glands that secrete their products through ducts opening onto an epithelium
glands that secrete their products into the bloodstream
merocrine gland secreting a watery solution for flushing epidermal surface
protects abrasion and is water resistant
steroid important for calcium metabolism
where is vitamin D3 formed?
bones of girdles and limbs
Bones of skull, thorax, and vertebral column
mature bone cell
break down bone
What are examples of short bone?
what are examples of irregular bone?
sphenoid, ethmoid, vertebrae
forms majority of bones
forms dermal bones
functional category where the joint is immoble
functional category where the joint has slight movement
functional category where the joint has free movement
what is an example of a ball and socket joint?
what is an example of a hinge joint?
what is an example of a plane joint?
what is an example of a condylar joint?
what is an example of a pivot joint?
what is an example of a saddle joint?
what makes up a neuron?
axon, dendrite, soma
What makes up the CNS?
brain, spinal cord
Information processing, coordinating and distributing commands, memory storage
What makes up the PNS?
Collection of axons in the PNS
Collection of cell bodies in the PNS
Relay sensory to CNS, relay motor from CNS
Relay sensory information gained from receptors to CNS
Initiates and transmits commands from CNS to effectors
Small cells with all processes looking alike
Cell body lays off to the side of along continuous process which fuses the dendrites directly to the axon
Small cells with 2 distinct processes
Have multiple processes coming of cell body with one being a distinct axon
makes blood brain barrier
Line fluid filled passageways of the CNS to produce, monitor, circulate cerebral spinal fluid
Move throughout the CNS to phagocytize cellular debris, waste, and pathogens
Stabilize position of axons in CNS as well as producing myelin
Surround cell bodies in the ganglia to regulate environment around them in the PNS
Forms myelin sheath around axons in PNS
what is the resting membrane potential?
what are the synapse components?
synaptic cleft, presynaptic, postsynaptic
What is the threshold membrane potential?
Change in transmembrane potential that once initiated spread through the entire membrane
lobe for motor movement
lobe for sensory
lobe for vision
lobe for auditory and smell
lobe for gustation
what makes up the diencephalon
thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus
what makes up the brainstem
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Change in transmembrane potential making the cell more negative
Return to resting transmembrane potential
Change in transmembrane potential from a smaller negative value or positive value
Location of myelinated axons
Collection of cell bodies
Establish emotional state, link conscious and unconscious function, role in memory storage/retrieval, control flight or fight response, link emotion with memory
What are the general senses?
Pain, temperature, touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception
what are the special senses?
sight, hearing, olfaction, equilibrium, gustation (organ housing)
rest and digest
fight or flight
Increases heart rate, breathing, sweating and decreases digestion
decreases heart rate, breathing, sweating, and increases digestion
Innermost layer directly attached to neural tissue
Middle layer of meninges
Outermost layer of meninges
what are the steps to the reflex arc?
receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron ,motor neuron, effector
what are some examples of phasic receptors?
what are some examples of tonic receptors?
Pain, light, proprioception
Respond to distortion in plasma membrane
Detects change in temperature