Computer Science Ch 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Computer Science Ch 4 Deck (61):
1

Binary Digits, or, Bits

0s and 1s

2

[blank] consits of a set of symbols or digits (eg 0,1,2, ... including zero) and an arrangement or positioning that indicates a magnitude.

Positional Number System

3

the [blank] is the number of distinct symbols (digits) in a positional number system.

Base

4

A number system where the base is 16

Hexadecimal

5

A number system where the base is 10

Decimal

6

A number system where the base is 8

Octal

7

A number system where the base is 2

Binary

8

A number system where the digits 0,1,2,3 are used

Base 4

9

uses the digits 0 through 9

Decimal Number System

10

<--- 10^4 10^ 3 10^2 10^1 10^0 {why start with 0?}

So you can begin by storing the "1" digit

11

The [blank] system is a two-state system

Binary

12

1 or 0

Mathematical and logical

13

5 volts or 0 volts (or two voltages sometimes referred to as High or Low)

Electrical

14

Capacitors charged or not charged (eg in dynamic RAM)

electrostatic

15

Visible Light or infrared on or off (or high or low intensity)

optical

16

[blank] field oriented one way or another. The [blank]tizable material of the disk becomes a series of bar [blanks] that are oriented North-South or South-North along the track. This pattern represents 1s and 0s. A simple system of magnetically storing bits uses two bar magnets for each bit.

Magnetic

17

A group of 8 bits

byte

18

Sometimes a 9th bit or [blank] is used to detect errors, or several additional bits are used to detect and correct errors.

parity bit

19

A parity bit will detect single-bit errors in storing or transferring data. the parity bit is (like all bits) either 0 or 1.

For [blank1] the sum of all bits including the parity bit is even. In the above, the sum of all bits is 4 (an even number). If any one of the bits got changed (from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0) when transferred or stored, then the sum would be an odd number, and you'd know that at least one bit was wrong.

If the designer chose [blank2], then the parity would be set so that the sum of all bits would be odd. If later the sum were even, then an error had occurred.

[blank 1] -- even parity

[blank 2] -- odd parity

20

How many bits are in a two byte word?

16 bits

21

How many bytes are in a 32-bit word?

4 bytes

22

00000000

0

23

00000001

1

24

00000010

2

25

11111111

255

26

How do you convert a number from decimal to binary? What number system must you take into account?

laying out a grid -- positional

27

Numbers without a + or - before them are ...?

unsigned whole numbers

28

What kind of method must you use (that includes floating point numbers) to indicate a positive or negative number?

sign-and-magnitude method

29

The [blank] is commonly used in computer science because it easily translates to and from the binary system.

Hexadecimal Number system (Hex)

30

Which number system is base 16 and uses the digits 0123456789ABCDEF?

Hexadecimal System

31

Hex B = decimal ___

11

32

Each hexadecimal digit in a hexadecimal number translates separately into [blank]

4-bit binary numbers

33

Any combination of [blank] bits can be written as one octal digit.

3

34

to convert from binary to octal, from the right, group the bits by threes, then for each group of three bits, write the [blank] equivalent

octal

35

Exercise 1: write 255 base 10 in two ways 1. as a binary number in the binary positional number system and 2. as a binary coded decimal.

DO IT!

36

Exercise 2: Write 65535 in two ways 1. as a binary number in the positional number system and 2. as a binary coded decimal Hint: the first way requires 16 bits: the second way requires 20 bits. Are the patterns of 0s and 1s the same in the two cases?

DO IT!

37

[blank] uses 7 bits. Each integer 0-127 corresponds to one of 128 characters.

ASCII

38

[blank] uses 8 bits. Each integer 0-255 corresponds to one of 256 characters.

ASCII 8

39

Sixteen-bit [blank] is a list (a collation sequence) or 65,536 integers (0-65535) and each integer is associated with a graphical character.

Unicode

40

Examples of [blank] data types are the ASCII character sets, EBCDIC the 16-bit Unicode, and integers themselves.

Ordinal

41

An input device such as a mouse is physical [blank] but accompanying it is software called the mouse [blank 2] that interprets data from the mouse

[blank 1] hardware
[blank2] driver

42

[blank] is caused by rubbing and inflammation of tendons and the median nerve passing through the carpel tunnel on the inside of the wrist and fleshy part of the palm near the wrist.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

43

This arrangement became standard in the early typewriter days as a means to slow down typing and thus avoid keys from being tangles.

QWERTY

44

is an alternative layout that was extensively studied for English typing -- requires remapping the keyboard.

Dvorak

45

MICR or [blank] uses characters printed in magnetic ink and a sensor that can detect and recognize those characters.

magnetic-ink character recognition

46

[blank] are input devices that sense images of text and graphics.

Scanners

47

Black and White scanners store how many bits per pixel?

one

48

How many bits per pixel does a grayscale scanner require?

8

49

A scanner that has 256 levels of color requires how many bits per pixel?

24 bits or 3 bytes

50

A scanner that has 1024 levels of color requires how many bits per pixel?

30

51

A scanner that has 4096 levels of color requires how many bits per pixel?

36

52

the four types of scanners

1. Flatbed
2. Sheetfed
3. Handheld or Portable
4. Slide Scanners

53

OCR or [blank] software isn't an input device, but it is commonly used with scanners/

Optical Character Recognition

54

Using [blank] to recognize characters finds that a vertical line on the right connected to a circle on its left and a "hat" above is a lowercase letter a.

Feature Extraction

55

[Blanks] measure the geometrical shapes and sometimes colors of objects buildings and even mountains.

3d scanners

56

Digital Camera that use CCDs or [blank] or CMOS or [blank 2] to sense colors and intensities, then output the data to a flash card or other memory.

charge coupled devices

complementary metal oxide semiconductors sensors

57

[blanks] for cameras are expressed in megapixels.

Resolutions

58

Wand readers and bar-code readers sense and detect [blanks] such as the Universal Product Code (UPC)

bar codes

59

[blanks] can detect the horizontal and vertical position of a finger or stylus

touch screens

60

records geometrically and dynamically how music is played

MIDI

61

Reduces the amount of data required to store a music file

MP3s