Computer Systems Ch 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Computer Systems Ch 1-3 Deck (41):
1

EPROM

Erasable Programmable Read only memory

2

Serial processing

An instruction finishes before the next one begins

2

excel forumlas

begin with =, instruct computer to
A) display data from other cells
B) carry out arithmetic ops with numbers
C) carry out arithmetic ops with other cells

3

ROM

Data or instructions are permanently built into the chip

4

FPU

Caries out operations faster than a unit that manipulates integers

5

Destructive read

When bits are read, charged capacitors discharge & must be recharged immediately so no data is lost

6

Memory hierarchy

Hard drive
Primary memory
Secondary memory
RAM
L2 cache
L1 cache
Registers

7

# of floating point operations per/second

Measure of power to do arithmetic w/ floating point number
(Decimals to the 10x power )

8

SRAM

Faster than DRAM, more expensive, does not require refreshing. It is volatile but w/ low power

9

L1 cache

Physically part of the CPU, distinct from registers

11

Mechanical Device

Are the keys on keyboards that close circuits, disk in the hard drives and optical drivers. (such as cooling fans that rotate)

12

Small Prefixes

m-mili 1/1000th
u-micro 1/1millionth
n-nano 1/1billionth
pico-p 1/1trillionth

13

analog data

real world stuff like sounds, electrical currernts, time etc. It has no precisely measurable or discrete value

14

digital data

discrete values, can be processed by a computer

15

electrical device

involves motion of electrons in metal conductors

16

electronic device

uses motion of electrons in semiconductors

17

computer

accepts raw input data
stores and retrieves instructions and data
executes arithmetic and logical instruction
outputs refined data

18

peripheral equipment

devices other than the CPU and memory (input, output, secondary storage)

19

optical computers

use beams of light or infrared rays without electrical or electronic components

20

traces

lines of conducting metal printed on circuit board

21

Large prefixes

M-Mega-1mil
G-Giga-1bil
T-Tera-1tril

22

Servers

computers used in networks

23

network cards

input output digital data to and from computers in a network

24

modem

modulator/demodulator
converts digital data to analog carried through a phone line

25

pipelined processing

next instruction set is fetched once the first one is available, rather than waiting for the first to finish

26

cache hit rate

% of time data and instructions can be found in L1 cache

27

nonvolatile

can be erased and programmed electrically, data not lost when power is removed

28

memory management unit

chip that knows what type, how much data, and keeps track of where it is stored

29

solid-state drives

large flash memory with no moving parts

30

DRAM

volatile, less expensive than SRAM, used in main memory

31

adapter

transmit and recieve over copper phone lines

32

centralized computer system

CPU
memory
secondary storage
input output

33

L2 Cache

chips soldered on the motherboard, sometimes part of the CPU

34

RISC

Reduced instruction set computer
commonly used instructions of the same length, requiring no decoding and simpler storage

35

communication devices

input output devices
modems
adapters
network cards
A/D converters
D/A converters

36

CMOS

low power consumption memory
battery powered
writable
nonvolatile

37

embedded processors

microcontrollers specified to do certain tasks
long lives, no maintenance
low cost and power

38

BUS

series of traces printed on a circuit board that transfer data to a computer

39

cache

high speed semiconductor memory
composed of SRAM with transistors

40

Digital/Analog

accepts digital data from computer and converts it into analog signals

41

Analog/Digital

accepts data such as temperature and pressure and converts it to digital data that computer can use