CONCEPT 10: BONES ADD FLAVOR, FAT AND JUICINESS Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 10: BONES ADD FLAVOR, FAT AND JUICINESS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 10: BONES ADD FLAVOR, FAT AND JUICINESS Deck (65):
1

The main structural material of bone.

Calcium phosphate.

2

What is calcium phosphate?

An insoluble rigid inorganic compound.

3

Primary protein in connective tissue?

Collagen

4

Collagen comprises what percentage of bone?

40%

5

Why are veal bones commonly used in stocks?

They have a lot of connective tissue.

6

Why is bone a poor conductor of heat? Does calcium phosphate contribute?

Although CP is a good heat-conducting substance alone, bone is very porous and thus relatively poor conductor of heat.

7

Why does the poor heat conducting qualities of bone yield a juicier piece of beef?

The meat closest to the bone doesn't cook quickly--a phenomenon that helps prevent overcooking and moisture loss.

8

Why is the rarest part of cooked meat next to the bone?

Meat closest to the bone cooks more slowly.

9

What crucial source of flavor are bones lined with?

Fat

10

Why does fat absorb so much smokey flavor?

A good number of flavor compounds found in smoke vapor are fat-soluble; bone in meat is more likely to absorb flavor from smoke.

11

Does fat from bones baste meat while it cooks?

Yes

12

What entity in bones adds flavor directly to meat?

Marrow, where blood cells are made, which is rich in fat and other flavor substances.

13

How does marrow transfer to the meat?

While the bone-in cuts cook, the marrow's flavor compounds slowly migrate through the porous bone into surrounding meat.

14

TEST KITCHEN: MARROW AND POTATOES

Scraped t-bone placed inside a bed of mashed potatoes and roasted for 1 1/2 hours. Potatoes with bone=in were noticeably meatier. Results: marrow travel from bone to meat.

15

Center Rib Roast is the pork equivalent of what?

Prime rib or rack of lamb.

16

What two steaks are a t-bone and/or porterhouse made of?

Strip steak and a filet.

17

When cooking a t-bone, why would you put the filet portion toward a cooler side of the grill?

Filet side will cook faster than the New York.

18

What has more beefy flavor, strip steak or filet?

Strip steak

19

Difference between porterhouse and t-bone?

Porterhouse is just a huge t-bone steak cut further back in the animal. This is why it yield a larger filet.

20

Normal thickness for t-bone.

1/2 inch

21

Normal thickness for porterhouse.

1 1/4 inches

22

What t-bone dish is Florence known for?

Bistecca alla fiorentina - huge t-bone grilled over an oak fire. Steak is seasoned after cooking.

23

Why pat meat with paper towels before cooking?

Reduces moisture so meat doesn't steam.

24

Describe the rib roast, first cut.

Consists of ribs 9 through 12, toward the back of the rib section, closer to the loin and contains the large ribeye muscle. Extremely tender and flavorful. Best when roasted or grill-roasted.

25

Describe a T-bone steak.

T-shaped bone, which comes from the short loin, separates the long, narrow strip of top loin and a small piece of tenderloin. Since it contains two steaks in one, you receive different textures and flavors.

26

"Best" way to cook a Porterhouse steak.

Like the T-bone, the porterhouse has well balanced flavor and texture; is also best when grilled.

27

"Best" way to cook t-bone.

The size, shape and bone make indoor cooking tricky; grilling is best.

28

Describe beef ribs.

There large ribs come from the top half of the animal and are cut from rib bones 6 through 12--the home to prime rib. These ribs are often very large (about 8 inches long) and can be sold in smaller slabs with just three or four bones.

29

Best way to cook beef ribs.

Best when barbecued.

30

Describe short ribs.

Inexpensive and rich, these meaty ribs can be cut from various locations on the cow, although they commonly come from the animals underside. Often each rib bone has been separated and cut crosswise so that a large chunk of meat is attached to one side of the bone.

31

Best way to cook short ribs.

These ribs can be tough without prolonged cooking. Best when braised, although they can be butterflied and grilled.

32

Describe Pork Center Rib Roast.

It is juicy and flavorful, mild and fairly lean. This roast consists of a single muscle with a protective fat cap. It is from the top rib section of the animal and may be cut anywhere from 5-8 ribs.

33

Best way to cook pork center rib roast.

Best when roasted or grilled.

34

Describe pork rib chops.

Cut from the rib section of the loin. Rib chops can be distinguished by the section of rib bone running along one side.

35

Best way to cook rib chops.

With relatively high fat content, the cut is flavorful and unlikely to dry out during cooking. Best when pan seared or grilled.

36

Describe blade chops.

Cut from the shoulder end of the loin, these chops can be difficult to find at the market. They can be fatty and tough, though they have good flavor and juiciness.

37

Best way to cook blade chops.

Best when braised.

38

Describe St. Louis style Spareribs.

This narrow, rectangular rack is cut close to the belly of the pig. It has been trimmed of skirt steak and excess cartilage.

39

Best way to cook St. Louis style spareribs.

Best when barbecued.

40

What's better for BBQ, a single pile of coals on one side or two spread throughout? Why?

A single pile produced a steady, even heat source while two sides had more variations.

41

In a grill, is it better to place a vent directly over the fire or opposite? Why?

A vent over the fire created a direct convection current and the fire burned hotter and faster. Away from the fire created a diffused convection current and more even distribution of heat.

42

Why is the degree to which a lid vent is open important?

When it's open completely, the fire burned hotter and less evenly. The vent is best left partially cracked.

43

Should you open the BBQ vent to check meat's progress?

No, you will lose the even heat distribution. Resist peeking.

44

Is the membrane that runs along the bone side of ribs authentic to Memphis-style BBQ?

Yes

45

Where do Memphis ribs get their flavor?

Spice rub and a vinegary liquid, called a mop, that is basted on the ribs as they cook.

46

Why put a pan of water in a grill during the BBQ procedure?

Helps keep meat moist and regulate temperature.

47

Does roasting then grilling work well with ribs? Describe the end product.

No, this yielded and overly wet, soft-textured rib with little spice and a superficial smokey flavor.

48

Is exposing ribs to smoke after they cook a culinary misstep?

Yes

49

Does smoke contain water-soluble and fat-soluble flavor compounds?

Yes

50

Describe what happens to water-soluble flavor compounds during the cooking process of traditional dry-rub ribs.

As they cook, water-soluble compounds dissolve in the meat's surface moisture and get left behind as it evaporates.

51

Describe what happens to fat-soluble flavor compounds during the cooking process of traditional dry-rub ribs.

Fat-soluble compounds dissolve in the rendering fat, which then spreads through the meat, lubricating the muscle fibers and depositing smoke flavor as it goes.

52

Are dry-rub ribs more forgiving than wet? Why?

No, dry-rub are more exacting and have a very small window during which they are perfectly cooked.

53

What is the perfect temperature to pull out dry-rubbed ribs?

195 degrees at the thickest part.

54

What happens to the fat in ribs if cooked in the oven before the grill?

If ribs start cooking in the oven much of the fat renders and drips out of the meat before it even gets on the grill.

55

How many types of pork ribs are there? What are they?

3 total: spareribs, baby back ribs and St. Louis style spareribs.

56

Where are spareribs from?

Near the fatty belly and usually need a fair amount of trimming.

57

Where are baby back ribs from?

Smaller, leaner ribs from the adult pig's back, which can dry out quickly.

58

Where are St. Louis-style spareribs from?

Pork spareribs trimmed of excess cartilage.

59

Benefits of removing membrane lining on the concave side of a rib rack?

Ribs are easier to manipulate and smoke penetrates both sides of the rack directly.

60

Is roasting enough to unlock the flavor of tea leaves?

Yes

61

When smoking with tea leaves how do you extract maximum flavor?

Grind them up in a powder to maximize surface area.

62

What the advantage of quick-freezing ribs before cooking?

If you're trying to smoke them it's good for that element. However, high heat will damage proteins so we quick-freeze so more smoke can be absorbed and proteins aren't damaged.

63

Is it better to use whole chicken parts or cut when making a speedy stock?

Cut, more surface area of meat and bone marrow in exposed.

64

What's a different way to cook egg noodles for a chicken noodle soup?

Cook them in the chicken broth.

65

FDA recommends cooling liquid to what temp in the first two hours? What about 4 hours after?

70 degrees and 40 degrees

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