CONCEPT 11: BRINING MAXIMIZES JUICINESS IN LEAN MEATS Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 11: BRINING MAXIMIZES JUICINESS IN LEAN MEATS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 11: BRINING MAXIMIZES JUICINESS IN LEAN MEATS Deck (53):
1

What two specific principles does brining rely on?

Osmosis and diffusion.

2

What simple concept do osmosis and diffusion rely on?

Nature likes to keep things in balance.

3

Why do cells in in meat allow certain molecules to move in and out?

Sustain balance.

4

Small molecules (like salt) will naturally move from an area of lesser or greater concentration? What is this process called?

Greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Diffusion.

5

Are salt molecules in a typical brine more concentrated than inside the muscle cells?

Yes, so salt will naturally move in.

6

When water moves across cell membranes what is this process called?

Osmosis

7

Does meat pick up water weight when brined properly?

Yes

8

Is the concentration of salt in a brine important?

Yes

9

What happens if a brines salinity is too high?

Water will be drawn out of the meat instead of traveling in.

10

What happens if a brines salinity is too low?

The movement of water into the meat will be very slow.

11

What two ions is salt made of? Are they oppositely charged?

Chloride and sodium. Yes.

12

What reshapes the proteins in a brine? What does reshaping help the protein do?

Salt reshapes the protein helping it to hold more water before and after cooking.

13

Explain proteins atomically with references to charges and size.

Proteins in meat are large molecules that contain a mosaic of charges, positive and negative.

14

When proteins are placed in a solution containing salt, why do they adjust their shape?

To accomodate the opposing charges.

15

What do the rearrangement of protein molecules create?

Gaps that fill up with water.

16

Does does salt dissolve in meat?

Dissolves proteins, forming a gel capable of holding even more water.

17

Does salt more tender? How?

The rearrangement of protein molecules compromises structural integrity of meat, reducing overall toughness.

18

Brining meat accomplishes what 3 things?

Dissolves proteins, rearranges protein and adds moisture while seasoning deep into the meat.

19

What is the rib cap's anatomical name? Where is it located?

Spinalis dorsi is located around the eye of ribeye meat.

20

What steak is as tender as filet mignon with all the marbling of a ribeye?

Cap of ribeye

21

What do butchers call the ribeye cap?

Butchers butter

22

What do the french call the ribeye cap?

Callotte

23

Best way to trim ribeye cap?

Trimming it off the ribs before cutting into steaks will yield a entire muscle about 16 inches long, 8 inches wide and 1 inch thick.

24

Do large clusters of kosher salt dissolve quickly in water?

Yes, this is why it's a good option for brining.

25

When brining, what's important to know about different brands of kosher salt? Why?

Each brand has a different crystal size and using the incorrect ratio will yield an overly salty or bland product.

26

Does table salt have a varying crystal size?

No, it's a standard crystal size.

27

How should the following ratios be improvised with Diamond Crystal kosher salt?

Double amounts on charts.

28

How should the following ratios be improvised with Morton kosher salt?

Increase amounts by 50%.

29

What ratios of sugar can be used? What does sugar accomplish?

Adding sugar in equal amounts for chicken and pork will promote browning.

30

1 (3 - 8 pound) Whole Chicken

Cold Water: 2 quarts
Table Salt: 1/2 cup
Time: 1 hour

31

2 (3 - 8 pound) Whole Chickens

Cold Water: 3 quarts
Table Salt: 3/4 cup
Time: 1 hour

32

4 pounds Bone-In Chicken pieces

Cold Water: 2 quarts
Table Salt: 1/2 cup
Time: 1/2 to 1 hour

33

Boneless, Skinless Chicken Breasts (up to 6 breasts)

Cold Water: 1.5 quarts
Table Salt: 3 tablespoons
Time: 1/2 to 1 hour

34

1 (12 - 17 pound) Whole Turkey

Cold Water: 2 gallons
Table Salt: 1 cup
Time: 6 to 12 hours

35

1 (18 - 24 pound) Whole Turkey

Cold Water: 3 gallons
Table Salt: 1.5 cups
Time: 6 to 12 hours

36

Bone-In Turkey Breast

Cold Water: 1 gallon
Table Salt: 1/2 cup
Time: 3 to 6 hours

37

Bone-In Pork Chops (up to 6)

Cold Water: 1.5 quarts
Table Salt: 3 tablespoons
Time: 1/2 to 1 hour

38

Boneless Pork Chops (up to 6)

Cold Water: 1.5 quarts
Table Salt: 3 tablespoons
Time: 1/2 to 1 hour

39

1 (2.5 - 6 pound) Boneless Roast

Cold Water: 2 quarts
Table Salt: 1/4 cup
Time: 1 to 1.5 hours

40

What should you not brine?

Kosher chickens or turkeys, self-basting turkeys (such as frozen Butterballs), or enhanced pork (injected with sodium solution).

41

Why would you cook a bird breast side down first? How do you make the skin crispy?

So the legs, thighs and wings are exposed to more heat than the lean breasts. Flip the bird halfway through roasting.

42

Why would you not brine a kosher chicken?

It already has a fair amount of salt.

43

Rack used to cook many roasted meats and poultry.

V-rack

44

why is sugar in a chicken brine smarter than a turkey brine?

Because the roasting process for chicken is so short it'll promote brown; whereas turkey takes so long the skin will eventually crisp up and dry out.

45

Why should you blot a brined poultry dry?

Reduce moisture and help browning.

46

Why is butter under the chicken skin a better idea than above? Better options?

The chicken doesn't roast long enough so the butter will not aid in browning. Instead, oil on the top and butter underneath is a better option.

47

Why is oil better at browning than butter?

Butter is 16 to 18% water and 80% fat, oil is 100% fat and won't soften poultry.

48

Why is a V-rack imperative in cooking?

It promotes even cooking by allowing heat to circulate around the poultry or meat.

49

What helps crisp up chicken skin faster when roasting?

A preheated roasting pan.

50

When brining, what container work well for chicken breasts and chops; whole birds and roasts; a large turkey.

Zipper-lock bags, Cambro containers or a cooler.

51

How to you keep a large container for brining cold?

Ice packs

52

What is a crucial step in ensuring a proper brine?

Salt must be completely dissolved.

53

Is is possible to brine and thaw at the same time?

Yes, but the meat or poultry need to be completely defrosted by the time you're done; easier with small pieces like chops and chicken parts.

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