CONCEPT 15: A PANADE KEEPS GROUND MEAT TENDER Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 15: A PANADE KEEPS GROUND MEAT TENDER > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 15: A PANADE KEEPS GROUND MEAT TENDER Deck (88):
1

When would you need a panade with beef?

When beef needs to be fully cooked/well-done.

2

What is a panade?

A mixture of starch and liquid.

3

Name a simple and complex form of panade?

White bread and regular milk vs panko or saltines; buttermilk or yogurt or even added gelatin.

4

No matter your ingredients, what goal does making a panade have?

To keep ground meat moist and tender, and to help meatballs and meatloaf hold their shape.

5

What is made of long protein fibers that run parallel to each other, producing bundled strands encased in sheaths of connective tissue?

Muscle

6

Without a panade, what percent can meat shrink during cooking?

Up to 25%

7

The most common panade is made of what?

Bread and milk

8

How does a panade work?

First, its liquid adds moisture. Second, the molecules of starch in the bread actually get in the way of the meat proteins, preventing them from interconnecting too strongly.

9

How do starches in a panade also add moisture?

They absorb liquid to form a gel that coats and lubricates the protein molecules in the meat, much in the same way as fat, keeping them moist and preventing them from linking together and shrinking into a tough matrix.

10

How do starches accomplish this added moisture?

Starch in the bread works in the same way as cornstarch when using it to thicken sauce. Starch granules absorb water and swell with heat, making the liquid thick and viscous.

11

Does it take a small amount of panade to add moisture?

It takes little cornstarch to thicken a sauce, and so it also takes relatively little panade to keep ground meat from becoming tough and dry.

12

Will plain water work for a panade? What about milk?

Although plain water will work milk adds more depth of flavor by contributing protein and lactose. a sugar, which combine to produce extra browning and flavor via Maillard reaction.

13

How much milk and bread were used for 12oz of beef?

Half a slice of white bread and 1 tbsp of milk.

14

TEST KITCHEN: HAMBURGER PATTIES IN A SOUV VIDE

Patties with panade lost 5% of their weight in moisture; patties without lost 11%.

15

What do many supermarkets classify ground beef by? What does this mean?

Fat content. Meat can come from anywhere on the animal.

16

Did butchers use to label ground meat differently?

Yes, they ground specific primal cuts and labeled it as such.

17

How does the USDA define ground meat?

Ground fresh and/or frozen beef from primal cuts and trimmings contains no more than 30% fat.

18

What do fat levels in the US vary between?

70 and 90 percent lean.

19

Which cut has more fat, chuck or sirloin?

Chuck

20

Range of fat in ground chuck? Three words to describe it.

15 to 20%; rich, tender and juicy.

21

Range of fat in ground sirloin? Two words to describe it.

7 to 10%; tender and tasty.

22

Range of fat in ground round? Describe it.

10 to 20%; gristly and lacking beef flavor.

23

Do you need bread crust for a panade?

No, cut it off.

24

80% lean in the store USUALLY comes from what part of the cow?

Chuck

25

85% lean in the store USUALLY comes from what part of the cow?

Round or hind legs.

26

80% lean in the store USUALLY comes from what part of the cow?

Sirloin

27

Why is it important not to overwork burger patties?

Too much handling can result in a rubbery burger. Aggressively grinding meat, as they do in supermarkets, often multiple times, releases too many soluble proteins that act as a glue to stick proteins together forming a dense, rubbery mass.

28

When should you "dimple" your burgers. When should you not?

Dimple when cooking on the grill or broiler. Don't dimple when cooking in a skillet.

29

Why should you dimple burgers?

To prevent burgers from puffing up when they cook; they don't hold toppings well.

30

How does the burger shrink?

When meat is exposed to direct heat from above, below and on the sides the edges shrink because of the connective tissue and collagen. This results the edges cinch burger patties like a belt, compressing the interior up and out.

31

Why don't you need to dimple burgers cooked in a pan?

The edges are exposed to far less heat.

32

Why does adding baking powder with the panade a good idea?

It helps leaven the meat making it more delicate and juicy.

33

Name three things panades work well with?

Meatballs, meat sauce and meatloaf.

34

What is in "meatloaf mix?"

Combo of beef, pork and veal.

35

Does milk take away the "liver-y" flavor of beef? What does?

No, chicken stock works well.

36

What would adding gelatin to a meatloaf do?

Add a luxurious smoothness.

37

How should you treat cheese when adding it to a meatloaf?

To avoid little pockets of cheese that ooze unappealing liquid you should freeze and grate instead of dice and shred.

38

What does cheese add to a meatloaf?

Flavor, moisture and binding power.

39

Why do you freeze grated cheese that goes in meatloaf?

Keeps it crumbly.

40

Are gelatin, saltines and chicken broth enough to bind meatloaf?

Maybe, but eggs are usually required.

41

What will eggs help bind a meatloaf?

The eggs, solidify as they cook, holding in moisture and adding body to the loaf.

42

Why is free-form baking better for a meatloaf?

Allowing ML to stew in is own juices makes for a greasy mess. Ditching the loaf pan prevents a greasy taste and promotes even browning.

43

Why does free-form baking lose more moisture than in a loaf pan?

Because the bigger surface area and browning invite moisture loss--this is why adding a panade is important.

44

When should you glaze a loaf? Why?

The glaze will unappealingly mix with the juices if you add it toward the beginning. Finishing produces better results, especially when placing it under the broiler.

45

What mimics the effect of veals gelatin?

Adding powdered gelatin.

46

What do the traditional meat ingredients contribute to meatloaf?

Beef contributes assertive beefiness, pork adds dimensions of flavor and extra fattiness and veal is mostly about the gelatin.

47

Is collagen naturally present in cows of all ages?

Yes

48

Whats the difference between veal and beef collagen?

The collagen in calves is more loosely structured--and therefore converts to gelatin more easily and quickly--than the adult cow's.

49

How does gelatin work?

By slowing down the movement of liquids, gelatin has a stabilizing effect, making it harder for water and other liquids to be forced out, essentially fencing them in.

50

What 2 ways does gelatin help meatloaf?

Decreasing the amount of liquid leaking from the meat as the other proteins coagulate and improving the textural feel by making the liquids more viscous even when very hot--sort of transitional state between liquid and solid.

51

What could you compare the luxuriant mouth feel provided by powdered gelatin to?

Reduced stock or demi glace.

52

Why does a meat sauce taste better after simmering all day?

It concentrates flavors as the liquid reduces slowly and breaks down the meat, giving it a soft lush texture.

53

Tricks to making a meat sauce taste like you cooked it all day.

Brown mushrooms to give sauce extra flavor w/o drying it out, blend a panade into the meat before cooking to keep it tender and add tomato paste for more tomato flavor.

54

What does mixing the beef and panade in a food processor do? Possible applications?

Ensures the starch is well dispersed so that all meat reaps the benefits. Ground meat for a quick or smoother, less chunky, sauce.

55

How do you get rid of a mushrooms squishy texture when making a sauce?

Food processor before cooking.

56

How much gelatin was used in the meatball recipe for 3 pounds of meat?

1 1/2 teaspoons mixed in 3 tbsp of water.

57

What beef to pork ratio was used for the meatballs?

2:1 beef to pork

58

Substitute for buttermilk?

Cup of plain yogurt and 1/2 C regular milk.

59

Why would you grate onions first? Possible applications?

This allows you to have the onion taste without a big crunch. Great in ground meats.

60

Does prosciutto have a lot of glutamates?

Yes

61

What is the only issue when using veal in meatballs?

Ultra-lean veal is usually ground very fine and will lack the pleasantly coarse texture of a beef-and-pork batch.

62

If you don't sauté meatballs how would would extract their favor for a sauce when baked?

Throw them in the sauce after browning in the oven and braise.

63

What are the traditional accompaniments for Swedish meatballs?

Lingonberry preserves and Swedish Pickled Cucumbers.

64

When making meatballs, do you mix the panade ingredients together to soak before other ingredients?

Yes

65

Is the wasabi you get in sushi restaurants real?What does the use of cream (rather than milk) and egg along with bread in a panade accomplish?

No, it's usually dyed horse radish because real wasabi is expensiveThe extra fat from the cream and egg coats the starch granules, reducing the extent of hydration and swelling so the structure is springy rather than loose. The egg protein also adds both structure and springiness.

66

Can baking powder leaven a meatball the way it leavens bread?

Indeed

67

Why would you whip the pork, not the beef?

Whipping the pork until an emulsified paste forms finely distributes the fat into the lean meat, thus guaranteeing a juicy finished product.

68

Name five different primal cuts of pork sold at a wholesale level.

Blade shoulder, loin, legs, arm shoulder and side.

69

BLADE SHOULDER

Well marbled with fat and contain a lot of connective tissue, making them ideal candidates for slow-cooking methods.

70

LOIN

Area between the shoulder and back of the legs is the leanest, most tender part of the animal. Rib and loin chops are cut from this area, as are pork loin roasts and tenderloins roasts.

71

ARM SHOULDER

Cuts from the arm, or picnic shoulder, are a bit more economical than those of the blade area but are otherwise quite smaller.

72

SIDE

Fattiest part of the animal; source of bacon and spareribs.

73

LEG

Often referred to as "ham." This primal cut is sold as a large solid roast; available fresh or cured.

74

Does pork today resemble our grandparent's pork?

No, new breeding systems and feeding techniques have made them significantly leaner.

75

Will modern pork stay a third leaner?

No, heritage breads are making a comeback.

76

Describe heritage breeds of pork.

Fattier, juicier and far more flavorful with a darker color and higher pH.

77

Name three heritage pork breeds.

Berkshire or Kurobuta, Duroc and Mangalitsa.

78

Describe the flavor of Berkshire pork.

Has a naturally smokey sweet flavor and is prized for its evenly distributed, mild flavored fat.

79

What is nearly the only option of pork at many supermarkets?

"Enhanced" pork, especially when buying lean cuts like tenderloin.

80

What is enhanced pork injected with?

A solution of salt, water, sodium phosphates, sodium lactate, potassium lactate, sodium diacetate and varying flavor agents.

81

How much extra weight is added when pork is enhanced?

7 to 15 percent.

82

Describe the flavor and texture of enhanced pork.

Although moist it's texture is almost spongy and the flavor unpleasantly salty.

83

Does enhanced pork lose more moisture when frozen and thawed?

Yes, up to 6 times more than natural pork.

84

Cured pork products, such as bacon, often contain what?

Nitrites and/or nitrates.

85

Difference between nitrites and nitrates?

While virtually identical, only nitrites have been shown to form carcinogenic compounds when heated in the presence of proteins.

86

What carcinogenic compounds are nitrates know for forming?

Nitrosamines

87

Should you buy nitrate or nitrite free bacon?

These products are generally brined with salt, a bacterial lactic acid starter culture and celery juice (sometimes listed as "natural flavor"). Problem is that celery juice contains a high level of nitrate, which is converted to nitrite by the bacterial starter culture. While these products can technically be labeled "no nitrates or nitrites added," the compounds are naturally formed during production.

88

Does regular bacon contain lower levels of N & N than some brands labeled "no nitrates or nitrites added?"

Regular bacon contained lower levels but all feel within federal standards. If you want to avoid them altogether don't eat processed pork products.

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