Flashcards in CONCEPT 22: STARCH HELPS CHEESE MELT NICELY Deck (61):
What does all cheese start with?
Can cheese be made from any milk?
Typically cheese is made from what three animals?
Cow, goat, sheep.
Each type of milk has different flavor characteristics and what?
Different amounts of protein.
Why is cheese made with goat's milk usually soft and creamy compared to cow's milk cheese like cheddar?
It contains much less casein, the solid component that gives cheese its structure.
Enzyme most cheese contains?
Where does rennet come from?
Stomach of a very young calf.
Why is rennet important?
Unlike other enzymes (like those present in meat), it breaks down only one of the proteins in milk--casein. However, it doesn't break it down to many different pieces, but only at one specific point, which allows these now-clipped proteins to bond together into gel.
What is the protein-gel rennet causes called?
Besides rennet, what else breaks down proteins? What do they do?
Microbes, or bacteria, creates the distinctive flavor compounds that make cheddar cheese sharp or give limburger its strong odor.
How is cheese made?
First, bacteria are added to milk, converting the milk's sugar to lactic acid. This acidification then causes milk proteins to form a weak gel. Then, rennet enzymes work to curdle the casein, separating the resulting gelled curds (which become the cheese) from the water whey.
Are microbes added or already present in milk?
Name two popular types of cheese that are ready after curd separates from whey?
Mozzarella and ricotta.
Name two popular aged cheeses.
Cheddar and Parmesan.
What is happening as cheese melt?
Casein proteins, which bonded together in presence of rennet, begin to break apart. The proteins separate and flow, like molten plastic, which gives the appearance of melting.
What types of cheese have a high moisture content and weaker protein structure? What does this allow them to do? Name two.
This high moisture of young cheeses like mozzarella and fontina allows the protein molecules to separate and flow at low temperatures.
Relationship between high moisture cheese and "breaking."
High moisture content means these cheeses have less tendency to break and become greasy when they melt.
When does "breaking" occur in melted cheese?
When hot flowing protein network loses moisture and forms even stronger bonds between protein molecules, recombining into big clumps that squeeze out fat like a sponge.
Relationship between aged cheese and melting temperature. Why?
Less moisture and a stronger protein network means higher melting point; more heat is needed to break apart tightly bonded proteins, which must happen before they can flow.
Fat content in cheese varies between what two?
13% in ricotta to 33% in cheddar.
What happens to protein structures when aged cheese finally melts?
The more developed proteins structures in these cheeses begin to regroup, making small clumps that separate from the remaining mass of cheese, leaving behind a gritty texture and occasional pool of fat.
What stops the clumping of proteins in meted cheese? Name two.
Starch, usually flour or cornstarch.
How does starch stop cheese from clumping while melting?
It holds apart the tiny clusters of protein molecules as cheese melts.
TEST KITCHEN: CLASSIC ROUX-THICKENED CHEESE SAUCE.
Sauce with starch emulsified into smooth, cream consistency. Flourless sauce broke and clumped quickly.
How does amylose helps melting cheese?
Starch granules release elongated threads of amylose, which then wrap around the casein proteins, preventing them from squeezing out fat and recombining into unpleasant curds.
Is Monterey Jack a young cheese?
Different ways to apply starch and cheese.
A classic béchamel, coating shredded cheese with cornstarch.
What dish calls for coating shredded cheese before melting?
What does melting new and aged cheeses together do for a dish?
Better texture from young cheese and deeper flavor from aged.
Another name for Rasp-style grater.
Parmesan and other hard cheeses: Fine holes of box grater, 1oz = ____ C
Parmesan and other hard cheeses: Rasp-style grater, 1oz = ____ C
Cheddar, mozzarella and other semisoft cheese: Large holes of box grater, 1oz = ____ C
Blue cheese, feta and goat cheese: crumbled by hand: 1oz = ____ C
Whats a trick to making cheese sauce on the fly?
Starchy pasta water.
Ratio of pasta to cheese?
1lb pasta to 1lb cheese
Why would only aged cheese be bad?
Why would only young cheese be bad?
Not much flavor.
What's the trouble with making mac n cheese in the oven?
Difficult to get the timing right; sauce end up breaking or pasta is over/undercooked.
How should you cook pasta when paired with cheese sauce? Why?
Just past al dente retains enough structure to stand up to the heat of the sauce without turning mushy so cheese can fill every nook and cranny.
What happens if pasta is cooked al dente or less with cheese sauce?
Pasta releases starch into the sauce making it gritty.
What happens if pasta is overcooked with cheese sauce?
Noodles won't absorb the sauce.
Government regulations allow Jack cheese to have how much more total moisture than cheddar?
Is Monterey Jack ever aged for more than a few months?
Can cheddar be aged for years?
Does age have a profound effect on how cheese behaves when melted?
Why is Monterey Jack so creamy?
The casein proteins are more loosely bonded which allows them to retain moisture and fat.
Are no-boil noodles acceptable for lasagna?
Will starch help keep lasagna from becoming too greasy?
What does ricotta add to a lasagna?
It doesn't add much flavor but gives it body without making it starchy.
Were no-boil or regular noodles better for their lasagna? Why?
Regular lasagna weighs twice as much, creating a starchy and heavy bite that takes away from the lasagna.
How should you store cheese?
Wrapped in two layers: waxed or parchment and aluminum foil.
Why is storing cheese a conundrum?
As it sits, cheese releases moisture. If it evaporates too quickly, the cheese dries out. But if moisture gets trapped on the surface, it encourages mold.
How do you usually find the two-ply cheese paper?
It usually requires mail ordering.
What is Pecorino Romano cheese?
Hard, aged sheep's milk cheese.
Can finely grated cheese clump when making a sauce?
Ratio of water to pasta when cooking for optimal starch?
2 quarts to 1 pound of pasta
On its own, can starchy completely halt the clumping of proteins?
List three dairy products/emulsifiers that keep fat and protein from separating. How is this accomplished?
Milk, cream and fresh cheeses have special molecules called lipoproteins that can associate with both fat and protein, acting as a liaison between the two and keeping them from separating.
What is a lipoprotein?
A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to the proteins, which allow fats to move through the water inside and outside cells.