Flashcards in CONCEPT 24: GREEN VEGETABLES LIKE IT HOT--THEN COLD Deck (50):
Where do green vegetables get their bright color from?
Any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms.
What does the complex molecule Chlorophyll contain at its center?
What happens to chlorophyll's magnesium ion when it's heated? What does this produce?
It loses the magnesium ion, resulting in a dull, olive-green hue--familiar to all of us who have eaten drab stalks of broccoli.
The process of color change is accelerated in the presence of what?
Do acids occur naturally in plants?
What is hard water?
Water that contains an appreciable quantity of dissolved minerals (like calcium and magnesium).
What is soft water?
Treated water in which the only ion is sodium.
Is rainwater soft or hard?
As rainwater falls, it is naturally soft. However, as water makes its way through the ground and into our waterways, it picks up minerals like chalk, lime and mostly calcium and magnesium.
Does hard water affect acid based dressings or boiled vegetables color?
Yes, it affects both.
What do acids do to chlorophyll?
Acids release hydrogen ions, which actually come in and replace chlorphyll's magnesium ions, a change that produces a dull colored molecule called pheophytin.
How does a home cook get around boiling vegetables in hard water?
Cook fast and in order to soften texture but not compromise appearance--blanching is the key.
Should you use a small or large amount of water when blanching? Why?
A large amount will ensure the temperature doesn't drop too much and vegetables cook rapidly.
Cooking quickly in a pot of boiling, salted water.
Why is salt added to blanching?
Salt weakens pectin, helping to speed the softening of vegetables before chlorophyll has time to change.
Why aren't raw vegetables bright green before blanching?
In raw vegetables, the pockets of air in the plant refract, and therefore dim, the color of chlorophyll.
How does a quick dip create a greener vegetable?
As soon as raw vegetables hit boiling water, some of the air contained between their cells expands and bubbles off, bringing the cell walls closer together and causing plant tissue to become more transparent, producing a brighter green color.
Why do we shock vegetables in ice water after blanching?
Abruptly halts the cooking process, preventing any further transformation of the chlorophyll.
TEST KITCHEN: BROCCOLI GIVEN AND ICE BATH VS NONE
After three minutes in the ice bath the broccoli was firmer with brighter color, the other was mushy and olive drab.
Color change in green vegetables after blanching.
Muted green to emerald green.
How long are blanched vegetables cooked?
For color, you only need a quick 30 second shock. Otherwise, 4 minutes will do.
How does ice bath halt cooking?
Heat will reverse course and flow into cold water.
How should broccoli be prepared before blanching?
Florets cut into 1-1.5 inch pieces, stalks peeled and cut into 1/4 inch pieces.
Boiling and steaming time for asparagus.
2 to 4 minutes boiling, 3 to 5 minutes steaming.
Boiling and steaming time for broccoli.
2 to 4 minutes boiling, 4 to 6 minutes steaming.
Boiling and steaming time for brussels sprouts.
6 to 8 minutes boiling, 7 to 9 minutes steaming.
How should brussels sprouts be cleaned?
Stem ends trimmed, discolored leaves removed and halved through stems.
Boiling and steaming time of green beans.
3 to 5 minutes boiling, 6 to 8 minutes steaming.
How should green beans be cleaned?
Boiling and steaming time of snow peas/snap peas.
2 to 4 minutes boiling, 4 to 6 minutes steaming.
How should snow and snap peas be cleaned?
Boiling is a technique that can be used as prep for what cooking methods?
Quick sauté or a casserole.
Sugar snap pea is a cross between what?
Snow pea and green garden pea.
What to raw sugar snap peas taste like?
Chalky and flat.
When doing a quick sauté of snap peas, why would you add lemon juice toward the end?
The acid will dull their color.
Contrary to popular belief, an uncovered pot is or is not necessary when blanching green vegetables?
Why do people believe you need an open pot when blanching vegetables?
To allow acids contain in vegetables a chance to evaporate and not dull their color.
What is the simple truth about acids in vegetables when related to steam?
Acids in vegetables aren't volatile and can't escape with steam.
Are frozen or "fresh" peas better tasting? Why?
Individually frozen right after being shucked from the pod, they are often sweeter and fresher-tasting than the shuck-'em-yourself "fresh" peas that may have spent days in storage. Blanching and freezing stops the starch conversion, sets their color and makes them tender enough to eat.
What happens to the sugar in peas with added time?
The sugar turns to starch.
Two varieties of frozen peas.
Regular frozen and "petite peas."
Two other names for "petite peas."
"Petit pois" or "baby sweet peas."
Difference in taste and texture between regular frozen and petite peas.
Smaller peas had sweeter flavor and creamier texture; regular peas had tougher skins and mealier interiors.
What does sugar do for naturally sweet foods?
Brings out their natural sweetness.
What does finishing a dish with butter add?
Body and richness.
What mother sauce could be used as a base for making casserole?
Velouté, but add roux in after sautéing vegetables; like a béchamel.
For casserole, why would you blanch frozen green beans before cooking?
Blanching prevents overcooking and also seasons them nicely.
What was the ratio of cream to chicken stock for their casserole?
With a casserole, how do you keep the beans from turning mushy during cooking?
Bake fast: high heat on a large dish.