Flashcards in CONCEPT 30: RINSING (NOT SOAKING) MAKES RICE FLUFFY Deck (89):
Rice is a seed from a plant know as what?
When harvested, what is rice covered by?
A protective husk.
After the rice's protective husk is removed, what are we left with?
What is brown rice composed of?
Three parts: the bran (which encloses a layer of cells called the aleurone layer, which is rich in oil and enzymes), the germ and endosperm.
Parboiled, polished rice is simply know as ______ _______.
White rice, the most common form called for in recipes.
Why has whole-grain rice been parboiled and milled for several thousand years?
To remove the bran and germ, leaving only the starchy endosperm.
Like potatoes and pasta, the main challenge when cooking rice is what?
Figuring out how to control the starch.
What requires a more precise cooking method: potatoes, pasta or rice?
What happens if you boil and drain rice?
You wash away its delicate flavor and the grains turn soggy and bloated.
How is rice cooked best?
With a measured amount of liquid in a covered pot.
Why cook rice with a covered lid?
It ensures the liquid doesn't evaporate but instead eventually gets absorbed by the rice; if too much water evaporates rice will burn before becoming tender.
Are starch granules the primary component of rice?
Do starch granules absorb water when held at room temperature?
What makes rice's starch granules absorb water? Final product? Explain.
The energy from fast moving water molecules begins to loosen the bonds between the starch molecules, allowing water to seep in. This causes the starch granules to swell and release some gummy starch molecules that act like glue to hold the grains together. The rice softens and becomes stick, or "starchy."
What two kinds of starch molecules does rice contain?
Amylose and amylopectin.
What determines the textural properties of rice?
The amount of amylose and protein of the starch granules, though there are exceptions.
Final product of rice with higher amylose and protein. Example.
Long-grain rice cooks into grains that are separate, light and fluffy.
Final product of rice with lower amylose and protein content. Example.
Arborio cooks into grains that are moist and tender, with greater tendency to cling together.
Does higher amylose and protein of long-grain rice affect cooking temp?
Long-grain rice will swell and gelatinize at a higher higher temp (158ºF) than granules in medium-grain rice (144ºF).
Starch granules that gelatinize at lower temperatures release more _______. This is what causes them to cling together.
How much protein and amylose does- long-grain rice contain?
22% amylose and 8.5% protein.
Describe length and width of long-grain rice.
Grains are four to five times longer than they are wide.
Which rice needs the most moisture for cooking?
Long-grained rice needs the most water for cooking and, when cooked, remains as separate grains that harden as they cool (because of their high amylose content).
How much amylose and protein does medium-grained rice contain?
18% amylose and 6.5% protein.
Describe length and width of medium-grain rice.
Two to three times longer than they are wide.
How much water does medium-grain rice need for cooking?
A bit less than long-grain rice and cooks up tender and somewhat clingy.
How much amylose and protein does short-grained rice contain?
15% amylose and 6% protein.
Describe length and width of short-grain rice.
Grains are almost round.
How much water does short-grain rice need for cooking?
This rice needs the least amount of water and can be quite sticky and tender when cooked.
What is short-grain rice ideal for?
Dishes like sushi, in which grains need to stick together.
The structure of a grain of rice, outside to inside.
Bran, aleurone cell layer, endosperm, germ.
Each grain of brown rice contains what?
The outer bran and aleurone cell layer, which are removed when milling for white rice.
All types of rice contain what?
Black rice is also known as what?
Purple or forbidden rice.
Does soaking rice before cooking help rice cook faster and better?
No, it's a waste of time. Every variety turns out overcooked and bloated, with grains that tend to blow out.
What takes longer to cook, white or brown rice?
Brown rice can take two to three times longer because its bran, germ and aleurone layers are all intact.
Why does soaking rice not work?
It causes rice to absorb too much water, which causes starch granules to swell as soon as heat is applied.
What is often referred to as "the king of rice?"
Why does carnaroli hold its shape better than arborio?
It has a higher amylose content but is still a medium-grain rice.
For a rice pilaf with distinct, separate grains, what step should be taken?
What is the benefit of washing rice?
It washed away excess starch on the surface to help rice cook up lighter and fluffier.
Does rinsing work with white and brown rice?
No, brown rice has no starch on its exterior because the bran is still intact.
Scientific names for Asian and African rice.
Oryza sativa and oriza glaberrima.
Difference between Asian and African rice?
African rice shows several negative characteristics with respect to the Asian rice species O. sativa, such as shattering, brittle grain and poor milling quality. More importantly, it consistently shows lower yields than O. sativa, but African rice often shows more tolerance to fluctuations in water depth, iron toxicity, infertile soils, severe climatic conditions and human neglect, and exhibits better resistance to various pests.
What type of grain is basmati rice? Where does it come from?
Long-grained rice that is traditionally from India and Pakistan.
What does sautéing uncooked rice in butter before adding liquid accomplish?
Develops nutty notes in the rice and helps the individual grains maintain their integrity.
Is long-grain white rice a neutral flavor?
Yes, used as a backdrop for other flavors.
What does a higher quality white rice offer?
Pleasant chewy al dente texture and slightly buttery natural flavor of its own.
Where do the buttery notes from a higher quality rice come from?
Naturally occurring flavor compound called 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; higher levels add an almost popcorn taste.
What is long-grained basmati rice prized for?
Nutty flavor and sweet aroma.
Difference between Indian and American basmati.
Indian is aged for minimum of a year, though often much longer, before being packaged.
What does aging rice accomplish?
Aging dehydrates the rice, which translates into grains that, once cooked, expand greatly, and more so than any other long-grained rice.
What is converted rice?
Rice that has been steam-treated before packaging.
What happens when rice is steam-treated?
This gelatinizes the starch in the center of the grain and removes some of the starch from the rice exterior, making it less likely to become starchy or sticky when cooked; this results in "bouncy" rice with an assertive (unpleasant) flavor.
Traditional liquid to rice ratio. Is this ok?
2 parts liquid to 1 part rice makes rice too sticky and soft.
Best ratio of liquid to rice.
3 parts liquid to 2 parts rice; this takes into account the effects of rinsing first.
What's a visual key that helps identify when rice is sufficiently toasted?
Ends turn translucent.
After boiling, rice seems a bit heavy. How do you fix this?
Place a towel under the lid so excess steam is soaked up and not left on the rice.
Why do you "fluff" rice?
To separate the grains.
For even heat, what is a good option for cooking rice?
Steps to cook rice in oven.
Place dry rice in cooking vessel, cooking other ingredients separately and bring liquid to boil. Pour over rice, cover and cook.
What should brown rice have that white doesn't?
A nutty, gutsy flavor and more textural personality.
Why do rice cookers work so well?
Indirect heat, much like an oven.
In a word, why does brown rice take so much longer to cook?
Most of a chile's heat comes from where?
The seeds and ribs.
How was Spanish/Mexican rice traditionally made?
Sautéing white rice until it's golden brown and adding tomatoes, garlic, onions and other ingredients with liquid to cook.
When cooking rice, what can you do to prevent "gummy" rice?
Rinse it first; the excess starch make it gummy.
Do you need to deep fry rice before making it Spanish style?
No, using a little oil imparts enough rich, toasted flavor; you'll need more than your standard tbsp before sautéing, maybe 1/3 cup.
How do you know when oil is hot enough to fry the rice?
Drop a couple grains in; if they sizzle the oil is ready.
Do the pungent chiles and raw herbs compliment richer tones of cooked tomato, garlic and onion?
Great tool for seeding jalapeños.
Can you use cilantro and parsley stem for cooking?
Cilantro stems have great flavor but avoid using parsley stems.
Why is it ok to use cilantro stems?
Their leaves are tasty but, as you travel down the stem, flavors intensify and never become bitter; they're sweet, fresh and potent.
Why can't you eat parsley stems?
While their leaves are fresh and herbal, the stems become intensely bitter the further down you travel; don't use them unless it's in a soup or stew where its strong flavor won't be out of place.
Why don't you rinse rice for risotto or rice pudding?
You want all the extra starch to ensure a creamy risotto.
Why does covering risotto with a lid and walking away work?
Stirring is used to prevent sticking and scorching, but by flooding the rice and then bringing that liquid to a boil, we're letting the natural jostling of rice to take the place of stirring--rice doesn't burn and we get a creamy sauce.
Should you mix rice when a creamy consistency is desired?
Describe the grains of Arborio rice.
Stubby, milky grains.
How much amylose does Arborio rice contain?
19 to 21%
Where does the desirable "bite" in Arborio rice come from?
A defect in Arborio rice called chalk.
What is chalk?
During maturation, the starch structures at the grain's core deform, making for a firm, toothy center when cooked.
Italian rice comes from how many grades? What are they?
Four grades: superfino, fino, semifino and commune.
The top two grades of Italian rice include what?
Arborio (most widely available), Carnaroli and Vialone Nano.
Name two types of Italian rice that are hard to get and why.
Baldo and the newly developed quick-cooking Poseidone are difficult to find outside of Italy.
Taste test between Arborio and Carnaroli.
Split - those liking firmer rice chose Arborio; softer, creamier rice chose Carnaroli.
Tasters thoughts on Vialone Nano.
Deemed too soft and had pasty texture,; the grains lacked a firm center.
What is Arborio integrale?
Brown Arborio rice.
Where did Arborio rice used to be exclusively grown?