Flashcards in CONCEPT 31: SLICING CHANGES GARLIC AND ONION FLAVOR Deck (83):
Most cooks understand that cooking does what to onions and garlic?
Tames the harsh notes in garlic and brings out the sweetness of onions.
Keys components in countless savory recipes.
Onion and garlic.
Do garlic and onions belong to the same botanical family? What's it called?
Yes, it's called alliums - this also includes shallots and leeks.
Unlike many other foods with potent flavors, garlic and onions don't have what?
Almost no aroma.
Does the papery skin keep some of the strong compounds from reaching our noses?
Yes, but these compounds aren't really activated until the cell structure is disturbed.
When the cells are ruptured, how does garlic get its strong aroma?
An odorless sulfur contain amino acid is released and immediately comes into contact with and enzyme called allinase. The reaction of the two eventually creates a new compound called allicin - garlic's familiar scent and fiery flavor.
When garlic is cut, will allicin build until the flavor becomes overwhelmingly strong?
Yes, this is why you should avoid advanced preparation.
What happens to allicin when garlic is cooked?
It's converted into a variety of more mellow tasting compounds.
Compounds, similar to allicin, that are created when isoalliin mixes with the enzyme alliinase?
Unlike garlic, onions contain an enzyme called __ _______, which is responsible for what?
LF synthase, responsible for forming the tear-causing compound propanethial S-oxide.
What does LFS stand for?
Lachrymatory factor synthase
The odorless sulfur contain amino acid in garlic that mixes with alliinase to create allicin.
To get a less pungent taste and odor from onions, how do you slice them?
Through the poles - root to end.
Does thinly slicing garlic create more or less bite than mincing?
Do thiosulfinates have antioxidative properties that stop enzymatic browning?
Yes, as seen in the test kitchen with potato juice.
TEST KITCHEN: POTATOE JUICE W/NO ONIONS, DICED ONIONS AND MINCED ONIONS.
Juice with no onions was very dark, like tea; diced onions was a lighter color and minced was pale yellow.
Does using a sharp or dull knife create less thiosulfinates?
Does more cellular damage with garlic and onion also equal more flavor? Explain.
Yes, when using a small amount of onions for a large dish you may need to mince it in order to extract a lot of its flavor. When making an onion soup, thinly sliced will keep it from overpowering anything.
What happens when potato juice sits overnight?
It oxidizes and turns black.
Three classifications of French soup.
Consommé (clear, broth soup), soup (thick, chunky, stewlike mixture), potage (hybrid of consommé and soupe).
Do cutting and cooking affect garlic's flavor?
Garlic is sharpest when ____.
At what temperature are garlic's enzymes destroyed and no new flavor produced?
What happens to flavor compounds when garlic hits 150ºF?
Flavor molecules that have been produced are transformed by the heat to more mellow-tasting sulfur compounds; this is why roasted or toasted garlic has a mellow, slightly sweet flavor.
What happens if garlic is over browned at high temperatures? What temp causes this?
300 to 350ºF results in a bitter flavor.
Why aren't garlic chips (garlic heated in oil) bitter after cooking?
Because garlic chips are mellowed first, then crisped, it creates a sweet flavor with only hints of bitterness.
Roasted whole head.
Very mild, sweet, caramel-like flavor.
Toasted whole clove.
Mellow and nutty flavor.
Slivered and sautéed.
Minced and sautéed.
Full and rounded flavor.
Pressed and sautéed.
Very robust, harsh flavor.
Sharp and fiery flavor.
Easiest way to turn garlic into a paste.
Use a rasp-style grater.
When sautéing croutons, how does water help?
Water gelatinizes starch within the bread, simultaneously breaking some of it down to glucose. As it cooks, the starch turns crispy on the exterior but remains tender within. And the glucose? Like all sugars, it hastens browning--a good thing for croutons.
Paste or oil-packed anchovies for caesar dressing?
The deep flavor of good quality oil-packed fillets is a must in this recipe. The fishier, flatter taste of commercial anchovy paste won't do.
Why should you mash anchovies with a fork?
To ensure they add savory, not fishy, flavor; big chunks taste fishy.
What can you soak precut garlic in to mellow its flavor?
Why does garlic mellow out when soaked in lemon juice?
The citric acid in lemon juice hastens the conversion of harsh-tasting allicin to more mellow compounds called thiosulfinates, disulfides and trisulfides--the same milder tasting compounds that form when garlic is heated.
A simple way to ensure garlic isn't burned when cooking in oil.
Start the oil and garlic off cold.
Heavy browning makes garlic taste ____ and ___-_________.
Cloudy pasta water generally means what?
Isn't necessarily and indication you've overcooked the noodles. It can also mean the pasta has a weak structure and breaks down too much as it cooks, resulting in a mushy texture?
Is Montebello a poor pita brand?
Is De Cecco a poor pasta brand?
Describe cloudy pasta water (confusion with its aesthetic principles).
Firm pasta will still be slightly cloudy (you can still see a spoon in the water glass) but weak pasta creates a thick cloud of starch that blankets everything else.
Great pasta texture all comes dow to what?
Maintenance of the extruder and the die, as well as the drying process.
Texture of poorly made noodles.
Sticky and gummy.
Texture of properly made noodles.
Firm and springy.
To form pasta into shapes, most dough is passed through what?
Holes of a die.
All dies were originally made with _______ blocks, which give the noodles' surface a rough-______ appearance.
Manufacturers claim that sauce clings better to what type of noodle?
Coarse and craggy.
Many American manufacturers have switched to what type of dies?
Why have manufacturers switched to Teflon dies?
It's non-stick and reduces the surface tension of the dough extrusion and, as a result, creates smoother, shinier pasta.
What did test kitchen find in regard to sauce adhesion with different noodles?
Sauce clung equally well to pasta made with both types of dies.
Were bronze dies responsible for producing a firmer texture?
How does the extruder affect texture?
The heat, friction and pressure applied to dough wear down and loosen the extruder parts over time. When this happens, the machine is no longer able to press the dough with enough force to make perfectly compact strands of spaghetti.
Do drying times and temperatures vary among brands?
How do manufacturers heat and dry pasta?
Some dry their pasta low (95 to 100º) and slow (over the course of many hours, even days) in drying rooms, claiming it preserves flavor. Others, like Barilla and Ronzoni, place the noodles in special ultra-high-temperature (UHT) ovens and crank the heat to 190ºF or higher, which gets the job done faster.
How does heat affect pasta?
The high heat cross-links some of the gluten strands and can strengthen pasta. But UHT drying tends to cook out some of the pasta's flavor.
Why are yellow onions best for caramelizing?
They strike a good balance between savory and sweet, with mild onion flavor and beautiful color.
Name 5 types of onions in the produce aisle.
Yellow, white, Spanish, red and Vidalia.
Described as sugary and mellow while others found them too sweet and one-dimensional.
Deep and complex flavor but can seem a bit harsh.
Turn very dark when caramelized and can be pleasantly sweet despite their sticky and jammy consistency.
Sweetest sample but have a chalky and gummy texture when caramelized.
Possible issues when caramelizing onions in a pot.
The sides encourage condensation causing onions to take a longer when caramelizing.
Non-stick or regular sauté pan when caramelizing onions?
The flavorful juices do not cling to non-stick pans, forcing them to mingle with the onions.
How to use heat when cooking caramelized onions.
Start on high heat to release moisture immediately then turn down to medium. This will create a nice caramel brown.
Why should you finish caramelizing onions with water?
It gathers up drops of caramelized onion juice from around the edges of the pan without compromising flavor or texture.
When is the best time to salt onions? Explain.
Adding them before cooking helps release moisture and thoroughly season onions. Adding after cooking only seasons the surface and leaves onions crunchy.
Does salting onions before cooking create a longer cooking time?
Yes, excess moisture takes longer to evaporate.
TEST KITCHEN: TOMATO SAUCE COOKED WITH SLOWLY COOKED, QUICK COOKED AND RAW ONIONS.
The sauce with gently cooked onions was rich, rounded and sweet; fast cooked was sharp and flat; sauce made with raw was thin-tasting.
Why do onions taste different depending on heat and duration?
Onions contain different types of sulfur compounds. Chopping and low heat release the enzyme alliinase, which zeroes in on some of these molecules, breaking them in half and producing pungent compounds that, over time, transform into sweeter-tasting disulfides and trisulfides. The longer exposure to low heat produces more molecules and greater complexity. High heat deactivates the enzymes, so fewer of these flavor molecules are produced.
How does fat also help produce greater flavor when cooking onions (besides the obvious)?
When fat coats the onions during cooking, it protects against the reaction with water, so that fewer of objectionable molecules can form.
What happens when you add raw onions to water (or watery substances like tomato)?
Water triggers the release of smelly and unpleasant-tasting sulfur compounds (boiled onions, anyone?)
Secret to rich French onion soup.
Caramelizing the onions for 2 1/2 hours in the oven and deglazing the pot several times. This can also be done on the stove with added patience. Finish on the stove and deglaze a few times to collect the fond--takes 30 to 45 min for deglazing.
Best way to slice onions for French onion soup. Explain.
Pole to pole will have more presence and retain some shape.
How do red onions affect French onion soup?
They bleed out to produce a dingy-looking soup.
How do white onions affect French onion soup?
How do Vidalia onions affect French onion soup?
They make the broth candy-sweet.
How do yellow onions affect French onion soup?
They offer sweet and savory notes.
Can you remove strong odors from cutting boards with baking soda?
How to make baking soda paste.
1 tbsp baking soda and 1 tsp H2O; rinse with hot, soapy water when finished.