CONCEPT 32: CHILE HEAT RESIDES IN THE PITH AND SEEDS Flashcards Preview

THE SCIENCE OF GOOD COOKING > CONCEPT 32: CHILE HEAT RESIDES IN THE PITH AND SEEDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CONCEPT 32: CHILE HEAT RESIDES IN THE PITH AND SEEDS Deck (95):
1

Besides heat, what can chiles add to a dish?

Depth and complexity.

2

What two basic forms are chiles sold in?

Fresh and dried.

3

As with bell peppers, green chiles are pick before they are _______.

Ripe

4

Red, orange and yellow chiles are picked when they're fully ________.

Matured

5

What colors are dried chiles?

Red, brown and black.

6

When are dried chiles generally picked?

When they're fully ripe.

7

Which chiles tend to have more concentrated flavor, fresh or dried?

Dried

8

Chiles get their heat from a group of chemical compounds called _________.

Capsaicinoids

9

The best known capsaicinoid is _______.

Capsaicin

10

Most of the capsaicin is concentrated where?

The inner whitish pith, with progressively smaller amounts in the seeds and flesh.

11

What are the effects of capsaicin on the mouth?

Can cause painful burning on the tongue and a short lived inflammation of the mouth.

12

Chemesthesis is the perception of ______, _______ and _______.

Pain, touch, heat.

13

Are some chile varieties 10 to 100 times hotter than others?

Yes

14

Can the same variety produce specimens with a wide range of heat levels?

Yes

15

How do climate conditions affect capsaicin?

Chiles grown in sunny, arid weather undergo a lot of stress, and stressed chiles produce more capsaicin than chiles grown in temperate climates.

16

Two compounds responsible for a majority of chile heat.

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin.

17

The measure of heat is also called what?

Pungency.

18

Rating for the heat of chile peppers.

Scoville units

19

How were Scoville units traditionally detected?

Extracting the compound that produces chile heat with alcohol and adding it in tiny drops to a sugar solution until the heat is just detectable by sensory panelists; more sophisticated analytical instruments are used today.

20

Does appearance have anything to do with chile heat? Explain.

No, small chiles have no more heat than larger ones.

21

Does "corking" indicate chile heat?

No

22

What is "corking?"

The white striations visible on the skin of some chiles.

23

Are serranos generally hotter than jalapeños?

Yes, but heat levels will still vary considerably.

24

If capsaicin is produced mainly in the membranes/ribs, how do seeds let off some heat?

The seeds absorb capsaicin from the ribs because they are embedded in the pith.

25

TEST KITCHEN: CAPSAICIN IN SKIN, SEEDS AND PITH.

5 milligrams per kilogram of green jalapeño flesh; 73 milligrams per kg in seeds; 512 milligrams per kg in pith.

26

How do you remove seeds from dried chiles? Should you reserve them?

Break off the stem to open up the chiles and brush out any seeds. Dried chiles are generally quite intense; don't usually reserve the seeds. 

27

How do you know if a chile is good quality?

Tight, unblemished skin and flesh that's firm to the touch.

28

Pablano appearance.

Large, triangular; green to red-brown.

29

Pablano flavor.

Crisp, vegetal.

30

Pablano heat.

1,000 - 2,000 Scoville units.

31

Pablano substitutions.

Anaheim, bell pepper.

32

Anaheim appearance.

Large, long, skinny; yellow-green to red.

33

Anaheim flavor.

Mildly tangy, vegetal.

34

Anaheim heat.

500 - 2,500 Scoville units

35

Anaheim substitution.

Pablano

36

Jalapeño appearance.

Small, smooth, shiny; green or red.

37

Jalapeño flavor.

Bright, grassy.

38

Jalapeño heat.

2,500 - 8,000 Scoville units

39

Jalapeño substitution.

Serrano

40

Serrano appearance.

Small; dark green.

41

Serrano flavor.

Bright, citrusy.

42

Serrano heat.

5,000 - 23,000 Scoville units

43

Serrano substitution.

Jalapeño

44

Bird's eye appearance.

Narrow and petite; bright red.

45

Bird's eye flavor.

Rich, fruity.

46

Bird's eye heat.

100,000 - 250,000 Scoville units.

47

Bird's eye substitution.

Serrano

48

Habanero appearance.

Bulbous; bright orange to red.

49

Habanero flavor.

Deeply floral, fruity.

50

Habanero heat.

100,000 to 350,000 Scoville units

51

Habanero substitution.

Double dose of Thai Bird's eye.

52

Why do many chiles taste sweeter dried than fresh?

They're allowed to mature on the plant.

53

Characteristics of a good dried chile.

Pliable and smell slightlty fruity.

54

Do chiles gain more intense character just as dried fruit has more concentrated taste than its fresh counterpart?

Yes

55

Ancho appearance.

Wrinkly; dark red.

56

Fresh origin for Ancho.

Pablano

57

Ancho flavor

Rich, raisiny sweetness.

58

Ancho substitute.

Mulato

59

Mulato appearance.

Wrinkly; deep brown.

60

Fresh origin of Mulato.

A type of pablano.

61

Mulato flavor.

Very smoky, with hints of licorice and dried cherries.

62

Multo substitutions.

Ancho

63

Chipotle appearance.

Wrinkly; brownish-red.

64

Chipotle flavor.

Smoky, chocolaty, with tobacco-like sweetness.

65

Fresh origin of Chipotle.

Smoked-dried jalapeño.

66

Chipotle substitution.

None

67

Cascabel appearance.

Small, round; reddish-brown.

68

Cascabel chile is also known as what?

Rattle chile

69

Cascabel flavor.

Nutty, woodsy.

70

Cascabel heat.

1,500 - 2,500 Scoville units.

71

Fresh cascabel are also known as what?

Bola chile or chile bola.

72

Cascabel substitution.

New Mexican

73

New Mexican appearance.

Smooth; brock red.

74

New Mexican flavor.

Slightly acidic, earthy.

75

Fresh origin of New Mexican chile.

California or Anaheim chile.

76

New Mexican heat.

5,000 - 2,500 Scoville units

77

Arbol appearance.

Small, round; deep red.

78

Arbol flavor.

Bright, citrusy.

79

Arbol heat.

15,000 - 30,000 Scoville units.

80

Arbol substitutions.

Pequin

81

Chile do árbol is also called what?

Bird's beak or rat's tail chile.

82

Pequin appearance.

Small, round; deep red.

83

Pequin flavor.

Bright, citrusy.

84

Pequin substitutions.

Arbol

85

Pequin heat

40,000 - 58,000 Scoville units.

86

Pequin substitute.

Arbol

87

When cooking white chicken chili (as opposed to red), why are flavor like chiles, herbs and spices more prominent?

No tomatoes to mask other flavors.

88

The best way to keep chiles fresh for weeks. How long will they last?

In a brine they will keep their texture, color and bright heat for several weeks; give them a quick rinse to wash off excess brine.

89

Do fresh chiles like jalapeños and serranos and a short shelf life?

Yes

90

How much salt should you brine chiles in?

1 tbps of salt per cup.

91

How long did brined chiles take to soften.

1 month, but were still perfectly usable in cooked applications for several more weeks.

92

1 dried arbol chile can be replaced with how much cayenne pepper?

1/8 teaspoon.

93

Since flour and peanut butter didn't perform as promised, what thickener was used for the ultimate beef chile?

Cornmeal

94

Instead of prunes and Coca-Cola, what was used to balance sweetness in the chili?

Molasses

95

Should you freeze fresh chiles?

No

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