Flashcards in CONCEPT 36: EMULSIFIERS MAKE SMOOTH SAUCES Deck (42):
Salad greens dressed with a broken vinaigrette can seem what?
Harsh and bristling in one bite, dull and oily the next.
Vinaigrette relies on the principle of what?
What is an emulsion?
Combination of two liquids that don't ordinarily mix, such as oil and vinegar.
Why does an emulsion need to be whisked so vigorously?
One of the two ingredients needs to break down into tiny droplets so tiny that they remain separated by the other liquid.
What is the liquid in droplet form called?
Dispersed phase (vinegar in a simple water-oil vinaigrette) because the droplets are dispersed throughout the emulsion.
What is the liquid that surrounds any droplets called?
Continuous phase (oil in a simple water-in-oil vinaigrette).
Which phase is the outermost phase? What does this affect?
Because the continuous phase forms the surface of an emulsion, that's what the mouth and tongue feel and taste first.
Why doesn't mayonnaise taste oily?
Because lemon juice is the continuos phase.
What happens if you stop whisking? How is this fixed?
When enough vinegar droplets find each other the emulsion breaks - it needs an emulsifier to unify the sauce.
Are eggs and emulsifier? What makes them such?
Egg yolks are an emulsifier because they contain lecithin, a phospholipid.
How does lecithin work?
Lecithin molecules have two ends. One is attracted to water (hydrophilic), the other is repelled by water (hydrophobic) but is compatible with oil.
What happens when egg yolks are added along with vinegar in a simple vinaigrette?
The emulsion changes: it's now an oil in water emulsion, or more stable with the oil droplets suspended in vinegar, rather than the other way around.
Why is oil suspended in vinegar when lecithin is added?
The hydrophilic end of lecithin dissolves in vinegar while the exposed hydrophobic ends form a shield around the droplets of oil.
Why can mayonnaise form an emulsion of oil droplets suspended in vinegar or lemon juice?
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic components of lecithin.
Is mustard an emulsifier like egg yolks?
Yes, but the emulsifying component in mustard is less effective than lecithin found in egg yolks.
Name two classic French sauces that rely on emulsifiers?
Béarnaise and hollandaise.
Do pan sauces rely on emulsifiers too? Explain.
Yes, swirling cold butter rather than softened into a finished sauce ensures a smoother, more emulsified result.
Besides butter, mustard and egg yolks, what is another common ingredient in emulsified sauces? Explain.
Cornstarch acts by thickening and making it more difficult for the dispersed droplets to move about and coalesce.
Do cakes need emulsifiers? Explain.
Yes, pound cake relies on the proper emulsification of eggs.
Mustard, egg yolks and mayonnaise are three common what?
TEST KITCHEN: STABILITY OF VINAIGRETTES MADE WITH EGG YOLK, MUSTARD AND MAYONNAISE.
Egg yolk was most stable; still emulsified three hours after being mixed. Mayonnaise showed signs of separation after 1 1/2 hours. Mustard started to break after 30 minutes. No emulsifier lasted 15 minutes.
Did tasters prefer mustard, egg yolks or mayonnaise as an emulsifier?
Egg yolks (potent emulsifier) left and eggy flavor that wasn't popular, mayonnaise (slightly weaker) created a creamy texture they liked, and mustard (decent emulsifier) tasted best.
How can you add a hint of garlic to a salad?
Rub the bowl with a garlic clove.
How long can a vinaigrette be refrigerated?
Vinegar is what % water?
Relationship between size of oil droplets and stability for vinaigrette?
Smaller droplets make a more stable vinaigrette; very slow drizzle.
Does salt dissolve in oil? When should you season a vinaigrette?
Salt won't dissolve in oil, so for even seasoning add the salt (and other seasonings and the emulsifiers) to the vinegar.
Classic French (and correct) oil to vinegar ratio.
Many modern recipes call for two ways to blend a vinaigrette.
Dump-and-stir or dump-and-shake.
Proper amount of greens for a 1/4 cup of dressing.
8 to 10 cups of lightly packed greens; shouldn't collect at the bottom of the bowl.
Another name for garlic mayonnaise.
What does the green germ in garlic taste like?
How long can aïoli be refrigerated?
With aïoli, how do you maintain a smooth texture with the addition of garlic?
Make sure it's finely minced; a rasp-grater works well - avoid garlic bombs.
Test kitchen's measurements of oil to egg yolks for aïoli.
1 large egg yolks and 3/4 C of oil.
What oil wasn't successful in aïoli? Explain.
The peppery, fruity flavor of extra-virgin olive oil was too overpowering; tasters preferred regular olive oil.
How to create olive oil with only extra virgin and vegetable.
Blend equal parts of both.
What should you do with water-based ingredients and egg yolks before adding oil? Explain.
The yolks contain both liquid and fats that must be emulsified before oil is added.
Best way to mix mayonnaise: blender, by hand or food processor. Explain.
Blending, emulsion came out too thick; by hand worked beautifully, but after four minutes, arms grew tired; food processor pulls it together in 30 seconds - top choice.
If you don't want to consume raw eggs what is a good substitution?
What are egg beaters made from?