Flashcards in CONCEPT 37: SPEED EVAPORATION WHEN COOKING WINE Deck (77):
Why is wine a key ingredient to so many dishes?
It adds depth, complexity and acidity.
A common misconception when cooking with alcohol.
The alcohol cooks out completely.
Archaeological evidence dictates that wine was first produced from grapes how long ago?
8000 years ago
Today, we drink red, white, rosé and fortified wines such as _________ and _______.
That alcohol content range for non-fortified wine.
10 to 14%
To make wine, grapes are first crushed to free their juices, which include what?
Water, sugars and some acids.
Wine makers sometimes add additional what for fermentation?
Will grape juice ferment if yeast isn't added? Explain.
Yes, a strain of yeast that naturally grows on the skin of grapes ferments the sugar, turning them to ethyl alcohol.
Besides creating ethyl alcohol, what else does fermentation add to wine?
Helps create new aromatic molecules within the mixture, giving wine some of its familiar flavors.
What happens once the sugars are converted to alcohol?
The new wine is set to age, allowing the slow procession of chemical reactions to impart even more, and more complex flavor.
Range of alcohol content for fortified wines like sherry and vermouth.
18 to 20%
Name two types of distilled spirits.
Whiskey and brandy.
Are distilled spirits made in the same fashion as wine? Explain what happens to the yeast.
In the beginning, yes. But yeast cannot survive in an environment too saturated with alcohol, and it dies when the alcohol content reaches 20%.
What is distillation? What types of spirits is it used for?
A moderately alcoholic liquid is heated and the alcohol and aroma vapors are collected and then condensed; used for spirits whose alcohol content ranges from 40 to 70%.
In most recipes, wine is usually used in conjunction with what?
Broth or another water-based ingredient.
When water and alcohol mix, they form what?
A solution called azeotrope.
What is an azeotrope?
A mixture of two different liquids that behaves as if it were a single compound.
What evaporates at a lower temperature, alcohol or water?
Do the vapors coming off an alcohol-water azeotrope contain both solutions?
Initially, an equal mixture of alcohol and water will boil at what temperature? What does the vapor consist of?
173 degrees Fahrenheit (which is a little lower than the boiling point of pure alcohol) and the vapor will consist of 95% alcohol; gradually, the temperature of boiling water increases and the vapor becomes richer in water - amount of alcohol becomes smaller.
What is alcohol content of azeotropic mixture unless it evaporates?
It will remain 5% of th initial alcohol content.
Name two techniques used for reducing alcohol.
Reducing before adding water based products, flambéing (works better with spirits than wine).
Is there a difference in the lingering alcohol content when brandy is flambéed with a high flame rather than a low one? Explain.
Yes, ignited at high heat will retain 29% of its original concentration; brandy flambéed in a cold pan holds nearly 57%.
What loses more alcohol, steak Diane or cherries jubilee? Explain.
Steak Diane has heat from a burner and match, cherries jubilee only has the match - Diane wins every time.
TEST KITCHEN: 2C RED WINE (14.5% alchol) REDUCED THEN 1C CHX BROTH REDUCED VS 2C RED WINE REDUCED WITH 1C CHX BROTH.
Wine reduced first tasted less boozy - averaged a very low .175 percent abv (alcohol by volume); the latter averaged 1.55% abv, over 8x as much.
What factors can significantly impact alcohol levels?
Cooking temp and time, as well as additional ingredients that can absorb the liquid, will greatly impact final content.
How do you use an entire bottle of wine in a stew recipe that calls for covered cooking and not end up with a sauce that's too boozy?
Deal with the wine first - like the demi glace.
Does today's beef get less exercise than that used for Boeuf à la mode?
Yes, today's grain-fed beef gets little exercise and has much more marbling than the leaner, grass-fed beef eaten in France when this recipe was created.
Why can you skip the traditional marinating and larding for boeuf à la made?
Today's beef is far more marbled.
Usual pot roast cut.
What is a "shallow brine?"
Salting meat and hour or two before cooking draws out moisture and helps salt migrate back in over time, seasoning it throughout rather than just the exterior.
Does marinating the beef in red wine, carrots, celery and onions for two days work? Explain.
No, wine flavor only penetrates the exterior and vegetables really don't add much - this accumulated with not reducing the wine could cause a sour, astringent or harsh taste.
Describe braising liquid of beouf à la mode?
Unlike regular pot roast, which is thin and brothy, beouf à la mode is richer and more akin to a sauce that might be found on a steak in a restaurant.
For a rich velvety sauce, does adding powdered gelatin add up with veal bones, split calves' feet, pork rind etc?
Test kitchen says yes.
What brand of dealcoholized wine does test kitchen prefer?
How does Ariel dealcoholize wine?
A cold filtration process, repeatedly passing the wine along mesh-like membranes to remove alcohol. The resulting alcohol free syrup is then diluted with water.
How does Fre dealcoholize their wine?
Produced with a technique called "spinning cone" method, in which wine cascades down spinning cone-shaped cylinders in a thin stream. Nitrogen gas is sprayed over this thin layer of wine to prevent any of the flavor compounds from becoming volatile and escaping. When wine is heated to remove alcohol, the nitrogen shield protects the flavors in wine.
Describe the taste of dealcoholized wine.
Sweet with little to no acidity.
Does acid cut sweetness?
What can you use to mimic the acidity of wine?
Vinegars or lemon juice.
Does excess liquid caused poached fish to leach out flavor?
Yes, smaller amounts of liquid keep more fish flavor.
When poaching a fish with less liquid (1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup wine) what can be done to cook it evenly? How does the top cook at all?
Since it's not totally submerged, the fish relies on steam to deliver heat and flavor. A higher concentration of alcohol helps create vapors at a lower temp which means better heat transfer.
Does alcohol increase the rate at which proteins denature?
Why does the thin belly of a salmon stay moist?
A higher percentage of fat.
What should be done with the white membrane attached to the salmon belly?
It should be removed.
The chemical culprit responsible for a "corked," or tainted, bottle of wine--which will have an unmistakeable musty smell and acrid taste.
How is TCA (2,4,6-trichloroanisole) produced?
When fungi naturally present in the cork encounter chlorophenols--ironically a product of chlorine bleaching process used to sterilize the cork.
Is TCA harmful to humans?
No, but it renders wine undrinkable.
How do you lessen the taste of TCA in your wine? Explain.
Submerge a ball of plastic wrap in the wine and let it sit for awhile. The polyethylene material attracts TCA, effectively removing it from the wine.
What the problem with using plastic wrap to combat TCA?
While the "dirty socks" odor had been greatly removed after 10 minutes, the plastic had also absorbed many of the desirable aromatic compounds, leaving wines flat and muted - still unfit for drinking and cooking.
When it comes to cooking, are all wines the same?
Problem with "cooking wines."
The salt used to preserve supermarket "cooking wines" can ruin a recipe and make it inedible. Don't ever use anything labeled "cooking wine."
Difference between pricier and average wines?
Use wine you want to drink but don't cook with fine wines. We generally found $10 wines performed the same as $30 bottles.
Truth about heavy oaked wines such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay.
Flavors that work in the glass can become overpowering when the wine is reduced. This is especially true with heavily oaked wines.
Do all varietals work the same?
Some varietals are better than others. OF course, not all Chardonnays are the same, but we do find certain traits that we like (or don't like) in most wines made from the same grape.
Most recommended for whites.
Crisp, clean Sauvignon Blanc.
Most recommended among reds.
Red blends made from multiple varietals.
How are boxed wines for cooking?
Boxed wines, which store the liquid in an airtight sack, are a good option.
Best way to chill wine quickly. Explain.
Covering the bottle with a damp cloth and putting it in the freezer will drop the temp to 50ºF in 30 minutes; water is a better conductor of heat than air that takes 50 minutes - towel will be fully chilled once wine is cooled.
What to classic crêpe recipes call for with the batter?
Rest it to let the gluten relax.
What did test kitchen find when resting the step to rest crêpe batter?
The gluten help form sturdier crêpes.
1 1/2 c whole milk
1 1/2 c flour (7.5 ounces)
3 large eggs
1/2 c water
5 tbsp unsalted butter
2 tablespoons cognac
1/2 tsp salt
Should you buy a specialty crêpe pan?
No, a nonstick works just fine.
How can you stop crêpes from turning soggy?
Sprinkle a bit of sugar and stick under the broiler - sugar barrier.
Orange sauce (crêpe suzette)
1/4 c cognac
1 tbsp orange zest
6 tbsp butter
1/4 c sugar
2 tbsp grand manier
Is a straight-edged pan or flared sides better for flambéing? Explain.
Flared sides allow oxygen to mingle with the alcohol vapors, increasing the chance you'll achieve the desired spark.
What causes alcohols flambé levels to change?
More heat means more vapors; they can rise to dangerous heights.
What temp should alcohol be if lighting with a match?
100ºF produces the most moderate, long burning flames.
How do you quickly stop flare ups?
Slide lid over the pan.
How does flambéing improve a sauces flavor?
Removing much of the alcohol and reconfiguring the molecules as a result of the high heat.
Describe the taste of a sauce that has been flambéed.
Richer and sweeter.
What is a flambé?
The ignition of alcohol vapor that lies above the pan, a reaction that creates significant amounts of heat.
How much of the cognac's alcohol content was removed simply from flambéing?
79% and the rest was almost completely dissolved through simmering.
Does flambéing create more flavor than simmering alcohol? Explain (use cognac).
Yes, many flavor-boosting chemical reactions of cooking require high heat. Because the cognac reached levels around 500ºF, these extra compounds were noticeable.
Molecules can absorb enough energy to do what when flambéed?
Isomerize, or change shape.
What is isomerize?
The conversion of a compound into an isomer of itself.