Flashcards in CONCEPT 41: GENTLE FOLDING STOPS TOUCH QUICK BREADS Deck (79):
Name three types of quick bread.
Banana bread, muffins and pancakes.
Can quick bread be ruined by excessive gluten development?
Yes because they rely on tenderness not chewiness.
How are quick breads different from yeast breads?
Unlike yeast breads, which rely on slow fermentation to create rise, quick breads use chemical leaveners, namely baking powder or baking soda.
How long after mixing quick breads can they sit before baking?
Because the production of gasses begins as soon as these dry leaveners are hydrated, quick breads should be baked immediately and don't require long fermentation.
What is the "quick bread" method of mixing?
Mixing all the dry ingredients together, then mixing all the wet ingredients together. Now, bring together.
What's the important part of a "quick bread" mix?
How exactly, and with what force, these mixtures are combined; folding, not stirring, is essential.
The eggs, fats and sugar in quick bread should have a ______ effect.
Why do fats, sugar and eggs have a tenderizing effect on bread?
Fats, oils, dissolved sugars and the emulsifiers in egg yolks all interfere with the formation of gluten by either preventing or slowing protein unfolding and bonding.
Even with fats, oils, sugar and emulsifiers, can you still over mix quick breads?
Yes, and you will end up with tough results.
Best way to mix quick breads.
Gently folding with a spatula.
What is said about quick bread batters that looks homogeneous?
They're likely over mixed.
What should be noted about mixing dry and liquid ingredients together for quick breads (think gluten development)?
A wet batter is enough to begin unfolding the proteins and activate the formation of gluten; it really doesn't take much gluten to make a tender quick bread tough.
Can a few streaks of dry flower remain when mixing quick breads?
It's actually preferred.
TEST KITCHEN: 3 BATCHES OF BROWNIES MIXED WITH A FEW STREAKS OF FLOUR REMAINING, UNTIL FULLY HOMOGENEOUS AND BEATEN FOR 5 MINUTES.
Differences, even between the two folded samples, were dramatic. Properly mixed batter baked into a compact, tender brownies; over folded sample was relatively cake and tough. Batter prepared in stand mixer was almost twice as tall and offered serious resilience--described as downright tough and said they lacked the fudgy texture of properly folded brownies.
Why were brownies in the stand mixer twice as tall?
The whisk incorporated more air bubbles and a strong gluten network was able to trap them.
Great way to add banana flavor in banana bread.
Take ripened bananas and stick in the microwave. Reduce the banana juice and put in place of some dairy ingredient.
Does freezing or roasting bananas in their peel speed the ripening process?
No, it just gives them the look of their super-sweet, overripe brethren; they do little to convert starch into sugar.
Best way to ripen bananas.
Put them in an enclosed paper bag for a few days; bag will trap ehtylene gas produced by fruit that hastens ripening.
What produces more ethylene gas, fully ripened or partially?
Fully ripened produces the most gas. That's why placing them in a brown bag with unripened fruit will hasten the process even faster--usually a day or two quicker.
The sweetest of the sugars in fruit.
How much more fructose did heavily speckled bananas have than the less spotty ones.
Up to 3 times more.
Percentage of fructose in lightly spotted bananas.
Percentage of fructose in heavily spotted bananas.
TEST KITCHEN: FULLY RIPENED BANANAS KEPT IN THE FRIDGE TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT REFRIGERATED BANANAS, THOUGH BLACK, LAST MUCH LONGER.
For the next few days, the bananas were nearly indistinguishable. After 4 days, the room temp became markedly soft and mushy while refrigerated remained firm, despite their blackened appearance.; refrigerated lasted an additional 5 days.
Why do refrigerated bananas last longer?
As a banana ripens, it emits ethylene gas that accelerates the ripening process. Cool temperatures slow down the production of ethylene, thereby decelerating ripening.
Why do refrigerated bananas turn black?
It causes the cell walls to break down , releasing enzymes that cause the formation of black-brown pigments.
What type of cornbread will a stone-ground whole-grain cornmeal yield?
A drier and less tender cornbread.
Northern version or cornbread.
Sweet and cakey.
Southern version of cornbread.
Savory and light.
How do you pump up the flavor of cornbread?
Use real corn.
Best ratio of flour to cornmeal for cornbread.
3 parts flour to 2 parts cornmeal.
What's a great way to get a dark brown crunchy crust on cornbread?
Pouring the batter into a hot cast-iron skillet.
When does test kitchen add butter to cornbread batter? Why?
They add it last to create a subtle streaks of unmixed butter in the batter and, as the bread bakes, the butter rises to the surface and creates a more deeply browned top crust and stronger butter flavor.
How long can refined flours like AP, bread and cake be stored in airtight containers?
Up to a year.
How should whole grain flour such as wheat or rye be stored? Why?
Storing in the freezer will help prevent rancidity since they contain more fat.
Does frozen flour inhibit rise?
Yes, flour straight from the freezer inhibits rise and yields denser baked goods; lay it out on a sheet tray at least 30 minutes before using.
Classic bran muffins rely on unprocessed what?
Bran cereal can come n various forms which include what?
Flakes, buds and twigs.
Bran flakes for muffins.
Often made with whole wheat in addition to bran and give muffins very little flavor.
Small bran buds for muffins.
Make dense muffins with almost no bran flavor.
Cereal made with bran twigs like All-Bran for muffins.
Give muffins robust flavor.
Does presoaking twigs work for bran muffins?
No, it makes them dense as a hockey puck.
Best way to incorporate twigs into batter.
Grinding half into powder and leave the other whole creates muffins with an even but not heavy texture.
What flour should you use for bran muffins?
Mixing AP and whole wheat reinforces the bran flavor.
What did replacing baking powder for baking soda do to bran muffins?
Created a coarser crumb tasters preferred.
How to plump raisins before mixing in batter.
Place in hot water.
How should you fill muffin tins for large, nicely domed tops?
Fill muffin tins to the rim and mound batter without leveling off.
Why do people say empty muffin cups should be filled with water? Does it work?
To ensure the metal doesn't warp and acting as a "heat sink" to ensure that muffins next to empty cups heat evenly (avoid stunted growth). Test kitchen found no differences or warping no matter how muffins were made. If pan warps it's a sign that u need a better quality pan.
In blueberry muffins, why is berry flavor often fleeting? How do you fix this?
Berries in the produce aisle have suffered from long distance shipping. Making a jam (evaporating moisture and concentrating flavor) is the best method; supermarket jam is too sweet.
Why should butter and oil be used in blueberry muffins?
Unlike butter, oil contains no water and is able to completely coat flour proteins and restrict them from absorbing liquid to develop gluten; butter still contributes tons of flavor.
How do you add jam to blueberry muffins?
Place in the center, under the surface, and swirl in figure eight motion using chopsticks.
Flour is made from what?
Name a few uses for flour.
Important role in baked goods, thickener in stews and sauces and a base for breaded coatings on meat.
What is bran?
The hard outer layer of the wheat kernel that is often removed for the production of refined white flour. It is filled with fiber and a small amount (9% by weight) of fatty acids; it include the protein rich aleurone layer as well.
What is the endosperm?
Large collection of cells in the center of the wheat kernel that store nourishment for the germ. About 80% of the endosperm is made up of starch. The endosperm composes about 75% of a kernel of wheat and is often the only part of the kernel that is consumed after milling wheat berries.
Refined white flour is made only of what?
What is the germ (embryo)?
Reproductive part of a wheat kernel and is rich in enzymes, fat and, as a result, flavor. Along with the bran, it is a key component of whole grains.
When and why is sifting flour important?
When making a delicate cake such as genoise or sponge cake that requires flour to be folded into beaten eggs and sugar, sifted flour can be added quickly and distributed evenly (because sifting aerates the flour), thereby reducing risk of deflating the batter.
If you bake, what three flours should you keep on hand? Explain.
Bread, AP and cake have a protein content that varies; they absorb water differently. The same amount of water might make a soupy batter with a cup of cake flour but a nice, firm dough with bread flour. More protein means more gluten, which, in turn, can translate to coarseness, chewiness, toughness, or crispness.
Most versatile flour available.
Percentage of protein in AP flour.
10 to 11.7%
% of protein in King Arthur flour.
Close to 11.7%
% of protein is Pillsbury Gold Medal flour.
Problem with bleached flour in test kitchen.
Did not perform as well as unbleached flours and were sometimes criticized for tasting flat or carrying off flavors.
Protein content of cake flour. Benefits?
About 6 to 8% and thus yields cakes and pastries with less gluten, which translates to finer, more delicate crumb.
Can Gold Medal make sandwich bread and cake?
Yes, 10.5% provides enough structure to make good sandwich bread, yet it's light enough to use for cakes of medium to coarse crumb.
Is most cake flour bleached? Why?
Yes, it affects the starches in flour so that it can absorb greater amounts of liquid and fat; most cakes have so much fat and sugar it's difficult to detect any off-notes in the flour caused by the bleaching process.
How can you make 1 cup of cake flour on the fly?
7/8 cup of AP flour and 2 tablespoons of cornstarch.
Protein content of bread flour.
12 to 14%
What is bread flour good for?
It develops a lot of gluten to provide strong, chewy structure for rustic breads, especially those made with little or no fat. AP is better for sandwich bread because it creates a softer crumb.
What is whole wheat flour made of?
All three parts of the wheat kernel--the endosperm as well as the fiber rich bran, or outer shell, and the tiny, vitamin packed germ.
What does the presence of germ and bran do for whole wheat flour?
More nutritious, flavorful, dense and less able to rise.
Why doesn't test kitchen generally like breads made with 100% whole wheat flour?
They are more dense and can be sour tasting; a combo of AP and whole wheat is better.
What is pastry flour?
A soft wheat flour with a protein content between that of AP flour and cake flour.
What is pastry flour often used for?
Pie crusts, tart pastry, scones, and other similarly buttery baked goods (biscuits and shortbread).
Is it worth spending the money on pastry flour?
Test kitchen believes it performs well in certain applications but it's not worth the money unless you're a professional baker.
What is self rising flour?
It contains a leavener and is made from a soft flour that brings it closer to cake flour than AP flour.
Cake flour vs self rising flour according to test kitchen.
We've found the convenience of self rising flour to be pretty minor and recommend using cake flour in its stead; just add the baking powder and salt yourself.