Flashcards in CONCEPT 43: LAYERS OF BUTTER MAKE FLAKEY PASTRY Deck (86):
The difference between biscuits and pastries that are flaky and light and biscuits and pastry that are dense and heavy.
Knowing how to handle butter.
How does butter make biscuits and pastries flake? What must happens to accomplish this?
When butter is heated, the water turns to steam. This steam lifts the dough and helps create a flaky texture in biscuits, tarts shells and pie crusts. But butter must be evenly dispersed in layers throughout the dough. This way, when the butter layers melt, the steams helps separate the super-thin layers of dough into striated flakes.
The challenge with creating a flaky pastry with butter.
Getting the butter evenly dispersed throughout the dough while still leaving it in distinct layers.
What happens if butter becomes fully incorporated?
Fully incorporated butter (such as in cake) will cause no flakes.
Butter begins to soften at what temperature?
Butter begins to melt at what temperature?
Butter liquifies completely at what temp?
When melted, what happens to butter creating flaky pastry?
Butter easily works its way into the other ingredients, removing the possibility of forming layers and promoting the formation of flakes in the oven.
Two methods used to create flakey pastries.
Lamination and fraisage.
Name three pastries that use lamination.
Puff pastry, croissants and many tart dough.
What are laminated pastries made of?
Alternating layers of dough and fat.
How are laminated pastries created?
By repeatedly rolling and folding the dough over itself, typically in thirds (like a business letter).
Each set of folds in lamination is called what?
With each turn, what increases exponentially?
The process of turning flattens butter into what?
This sheets sandwiched between thin layers of flour.
What does laminating pastries create in the oven?
The butter melts and steam fills the thin spaces left behind, creating hundreds of flaky, buttery layers.
What does fraisage refer to?
The process of smearing the dough with the heel of your hand, thereby spreading the butter into long, thin streaks between skeletal layers of flour and water.
TEST KITCHEN: BISCUIT DOUGH FORMED USING FLOUR AND BUTTER IN A FOOD PROCESSOR, MELTED BUTTER AND THIN CUT SLICES PRESSED BETWEEN WELL FLOURED FINGERS.
Melted butter biscuits sat squat, dense and uniform next to the moderately flaky traditional biscuits (food processor), both of which paled in comparison to the height and flakiness of biscuits made with thin pieces of butter.
What's the key to flaky biscuits?
Get layers of solid fat spread between the layers of dough. This way, the thin layers of fat (butter) will melt when they hit the hot oven.
Why does melted butter not work for biscuits?
It's incapable of forming discrete layers of solid fat between layers of dough.
Why is "pebbled" dough made in a food processor not good for biscuits?
The pebbles can't begin to form layers of fat between layers of dough. Even when they do start to spread in the oven, the softening pebbles can't spread far enough apart, forming only small regions of fat that won't give rise to flakey biscuits.
How should you cut biscuits?
With firm, even pressure; do not twist the cutter.
How should you mix flour and butter for biscuits?
Drop butter into flour, coat butter and pick up one piece at a time, pressing between well floured fingertips into flat, nickel-sized pieces.
Why does a food processor work for pie dough but not biscuits?
The pebble shape, created by a food processor, is ideal for the small, irregular flakes in a pie crust but not for the pronounced layers we need in a biscuit.
How should butter be treated for a biscuit?
Slicing the butter into very thin squares, and--instead of cutting the squares into the flour with a pastry blender--we press each piece onto the flour with our fingers, breaking them into flat, flaky pieces about the size of a nickel. This is exactly what we want for a biscuit; as we roll out the dough we can see the butter develop into long, thin sheets.
What does swapping out some butter for shortening do with biscuits? Explain.
It has a tenderizing effect because butter is 16 to 18% water while shortening is all fat; shortening reduces the hydration level in biscuits.
Besides shortening having less water, why else does it have a tenderizing effect on biscuits?
Shortening contains higher amounts of unsaturated oil than butter, which has a higher level of saturated fats. The higher level of liquid oil in the room-temperature shortening more effectively coats the protein in the flour, also reducing the level of hydration. Less hydration means less gluten formation and a more tender biscuit.
Why add extra baking soda to buttermilk biscuits?
It reacts with the acidic buttermilk creating carbon dioxide, neutralizes the acid in the buttermilk (so acid doesn't reduce the leavening power of baking powder), takes the edge off buttermilk's flavor so it's not too acidic.
What happens if you allow the butter to melt in the biscuits before baking?
If they soften and mix during the series of folds, the result will be biscuits that are short and crumbly instead of crisp and flaky.
Why don't you have the luxury of letting the biscuit dough rest in the fridge to avoid softened butter?
Baking soda in the dough begins to react the moment liquid and dry ingredients come together.
How can you buy extra time besides chilling the butter for biscuits?
Chilling the mixing bowl and all of the ingredients before mixing.
Why is biscuit dough a catch-22? How do you fix this issue?
It needs to bet wet--a dry dough makes a dry biscuit--but it also needs to be rollable. We don't want to scatter too much flour on the counter because the wet dough will absorb it and no longer be wet. The solution is a quick counter top spray with vegetable oil, helping the dough release easily.
Why should you never twist the biscuit cutter? How should biscuit be placed on a tray?
Twisting can seal the edges of the biscuit and prevent them from rising. Dipping the ring in flour and inverting the biscuit (flat side up) on the baking tray will lead to an evenly baked biscuit.
Homemade clotted cream recipe.
1 1/2 cups pasteurized (not ultra-pasteurized) heavy cream
1/2 cup buttermilk
Combine, stir, cover and let stand at room temp until mixture has thickened to consistency of softly whipped cream, 12 to 24 hours.
How long can clotted cream be refrigerated?
10 days and it will continue to thicken while in the refrigerator.
Why does grating frozen butter for scones work better than working with your hands?
A good pastry depends of distinct pieces of butter throughout the dough that melt during baking. Heat from you hands will melt the butter before baking and ruin the scones. Grating on a large box grater works best.
When should you add fruits to scones?
At the end so they aren't smashed in the dough; easier if fruit is dried.
Why wouldn't you add sugar or lemon juice to a dough?
Lemon juice makes the crust too tender, as acid weakens the gluten structure in dough. Sugar improves the flavor but was detrimental to the texture, even a small amount can make it brittle.
How could you add sugar to a pie dough with out making it brittle?
Sprinkle it on top before baking; similar to sprinkling sugar on dough right out of the fryer.
What are stone fruits?
In botany, refers to drupe, fruits in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, most often from flowers with superior ovaries. The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, lignified stone (or pit) is derived from the ovary wall of the flower.
Examples of stone fruit.
Plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and nectarines.
Test kitchens favorite stone fruits and berry combinations.
Plums and raspberries, peaches and blueberries, apricots and blackberries.
How long will butter last if stored in the back of the refrigerator? What happens if it's stored longer?
2 1/2 weeks, any longer and it can turn rancid as its unsaturated fatty acids oxidize.
How long can you freeze butter?
Up to four months but remember to wrap in plastic.
Does cake flour go through a bleaching process? Does this affect gluten? Explain.
It undergoes a bleaching process with chlorine gas that affects how its proteins and starch combine with water. As a result, weaker gluten is formed.
How is instant flour made?
Slightly moistening all-purpose flour with water. After being spray-dried, the tiny flour granules look like small clusters of grapes.
Why would instant flour be a good fit between cake flour and AP flour?
Cake flour has about 8% protein and may not provide enough structure. AP flour is usually 10 to 12% but may form too much gluten. Since the aggregated flour granules of instant flour are larger than AP, they absorb less water, making it harder for proteins to develop gluten.
How should you fraisage a pie dough?
Poor flour and butter crumbs onto the table in a rectangle, smear with the palm of your hand and fold over into a dough.
What is clarified butter?
Butter with water and milk solids removed.
How is heat used to clarify butter made?
Heat is used to break up the emulsion, which causes its different components to separate according to density and chemical makeup.
What floats to the top when making clarified butter?
The milk solids turn into foam at the top, which can be scooped away.
What lies at the bottom of clarified butter?
Thin layer that includes proteins, phospholipids, and the aqueous layers, which is predominantly water along with some dissolved milk sugar (lactose) and minerals.
How do you get rid of the aqueous layer?
This milky casein layer can be discarded after the butterfat solidifies as it cools.
Does clarified butter have a higher smoke point than regular?
Does clarified butter have a longer shelf life?
Yes, three to four in the refrigerator or four to six months in the freezer.
What is Ghee?
A butter product used throughout Indian cooking, takes the clarification process a step further by allowing butter to simmer until all the moisture is evaporated and the milk solids begin to brown, giving the butterfat a slightly nutty aroma.
Does washing produce in a vinegar solution kill most bacteria?
How much bacteria is removed when washing produce under cold water?
How much bacteria is removed when washing produce with vinegar?
98% which is the same as using antibacterial soap.
How much bacteria is removed when using a scrub brush?
How does vinegar kill bacteria?
The acetic acid in vinegar acts to lower the internal pH of bacterial cells, which in turn inhibits several key biomechanical mechanisms, effectively destroying the bacteria.
Ratio of water to vinegar for washing produce.
3 parts water to 1 part distilled vinegar applied with a spray bottle; rinse under cold water when finished.
BUTTER 101: FAT (MILK FAT)
Globules of fat from cream or milk (some of them crystallized) stick together when churned, creating a larger mass, which is kneaded to make the bulk of butter. In its solid state, much of the fat occurs as tiny crystals surrounding the droplets of water along with a small amount of protein.
By law, fat must make up what percentage of butter?
BUTTER 101: WATER
Butter is 16 to 18% water. Butter is one of the few ingredients in the kitchen composed of a water-in-oil emulsion, which is an emulsion of tiny droplets of water suspended in a continuous phase of fat, similar to a classic vinaigrette. A small amount of proteins coats the water droplets and keeps them from coalescing unless the butter is completely melted.
BUTTER 101: MILK SOLIDS
"Milk solids" is the term used to describe everything in butter that isn't water or fat. Milk solids are rich in protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, which are all removed when clarifying butter, except for the fat-soluble vitamins. Milks solids represent about 1% of the compounds found in butter.
Four basic decision of supermarket butter.
Salted or unsalted, cultured or uncultured, regular or premium, whipped or stick.
Salted or unsalted butter? Three reason why.
First, The amount of salt varies from brand to brand--on average 1/3 teaspoon a stick--which makes offering a universal conversion almost impossible. Second, salted butter almost always contains more water, which can affect gluten development. Third, salt butter's naturally sweet, delicate flavors; in butter-specific recipes like beurre blanc and butter cream frosting, we found that extra salt too overwhelming.
Cultured or uncultured butter? Explain.
The real distinction between premium and regular butters is culturing--the process of fermenting the cream before churning it that builds tangy, complex flavors. Cultured butters are produced by adding certain strains of bacteria that produce unique flavors. That said, these nuances are subtle in most cooked applications, so we safe the expensive cultured stuff for spreading on toast.
Whipped or sticky butter? Explain.
While testers couldn't tell the difference in baked goods, they found the aerated butter "foamy" and "plasticlike" in uncooked applications such as frosting.
How is whipped butter made?
By beating air into butter, creating a creamy spread.
How should you substitute whipped butter for regular in a recipe?
Do it all based off of weight, not volume (adding air creates volume, not weight).
A standard tub of whipped butter weighs 8oz, equal to how many sticks of butter?
2 sticks of butter.
Regular or premium butter? Explain.
While you hear a lot about the higher fat content of premium butters, tasters had trouble telling the difference, even when tasted plain. Regular unsalted butter contains 81 to 82 percent fat; premium contains 83 to 86 percent fat. Because higher fat butter remains solid over a wider temperature range, we like it when making croissant dough and other recipes where rapid softening of the butter would cause problems.
Gauging butter temp, chilled: Temperature
About 35 degrees
Gauging butter temp, chilled: Method
Cut into small pieces and freeze until very firm, 10 to 15 minutes.
Gauging butter temp, chilled: How to test.
It should not yield when pressed with a finger and should be cold to the touch.
Gauging butter temp, chilled: Why it matters.
Cold butter is cut into flour for flaky pie dough.
Gauging butter temp, softened: Temperature
60 to 68 degrees
Gauging butter temp, softened: Method
Let refrigerated butter sit at room temp for 30 to 60 minutes.
Gauging butter temp, softened: How to test.
At 60 degrees, it should yield to slight pressure and crack when pressed. At 68 degrees, it should bend easily without breaking and give slightly when pressed.
Gauging butter temp, softened: Why it matters.
Sugar can be creamed with softened butter (60 degrees) or completely softened butter (68 degrees) to make different types of cakes.
Gauging butter temp, Melted and cooled: Temperature
85 to 94 degrees.
Gauging butter temp, Melted and cooled: Method
Melt in sauce pan or microwave-safe bowl and let cool for about 5 minutes.
Gauging butter temp, Melted and cooled: How to test.
It should be fluid and slightly warm to the touch.