Flashcards in CONCEPT 48: SUGAR CHANGES TEXTURE (AND SWEETNESS) Deck (74):
Sweetners come in many forms. Describe some.
Crystalline white table sugar, deep bronze brown sugar, thick, oozy molasses, and the lighter, golden honey.
Sugar, like glucose and fructose, can be a single molecule made of what?
Cardon, hydrogen and oxygen.
What two molecules is sucrose made of?
Glucose and fructose tied together with chemical bonds.
Table sugar consists of pure what?
Is sucrose abundant in many plants?
Yes, especially fruits.
Unlike in fruits, some plants, like potatoes, convert the sucrose they form into what?
They use photosynthesis and turn it into starch.
What does the ability of some vegetables becoming sweeter in the fridge say about turning their sucrose into starch?
The process is reversible.
What is table sugar produced from?
Sugar cane or sugar beets.
Is sucrose water soluble? Explain.
Yes, it's highly water soluble; when dissolved, the sucrose molecules organized within each crystal disperse into water.
Does sugar melt? Explain.
No, it decomposes when brought to temperatures between 320 and 367 degrees Fahrenheit.
How does sugar affect texture in cookies and cakes?
Because of the nature of hydrogen and oxygen atoms in both water and sugar, they are electrostatically attracted to each other. When water and sugar are combined, they link together and form hydrogen bonds. It takes a fair amount of heat to break these bonds and, as a result, table sugar will hold on to moisture in food. Because of this tendency, sugar can slow the evaporation of moisture from cookies and cakes as they bake.
Is sugar hygroscopic? What is this?
Sucrose is hygroscopic, which means it has an affinity for water.
What happens when sucrose is heated along with some acid?
It breaks down into two simple sugars, glucose and fructose. When this happens, the result is called an invert sugar.
Why are invert sugars always viscous liquids?
Fructose does not easily crystalize in the presence of glucose.
Is invert sugar hygroscopic? Explain.
It's especially hygroscopic, pulling water from wherever it can be found, the best source being the air.
Why is brown sugar the Test Kitchen's choice when baking chewy cookies?
Brown sugar has more invert sugar than granulated sugar and continues to pull in moisture even after cookies have been baked, thus keeping them chewy as they cool.
How do sugar affect the texture of frozen desserts?
When making frozen desserts, sugar is usually heated with a liquid (water, cream, fruit juice) so that it dissolves. When dissolved, sugar lowers the freezing point of water. Because this mixture freezes at a lower temp, it is able to become far colder than 32ºF before beginning to form ice crystals while being made into ice cream. This means that when the ice crystals do form they form very rapidly - and stay very small. And tiny ice crystals translate into ice creams, sherbets, and sorbets that we perceive as smooth and creamy, not icy and grainy.
TEST KITCHEN?: CHOCOLATE CHUNK OATMEAL COOKIES MADE WITH BROWN AND GRANULATED SUGAR.
The brown sugar cookies had serious chew and the flexibility to conform to the curvature of a rolling pin. Cookies made with granulated sugar quickly snapped when bent.
Why do sweeteners like brown sugar make chewier cookies than granulated?
Sweeteners that contain invert sugar help to retard the crystallization of sucrose, therefore holding more moisture than white sugar.
Name 5 other factors, besides sugar, that create chewy cookies.
First, don't be afraid of butter; melted butter encourages the formation of gluten when flour is added to the batter. Second, use a generous amount of dough for each cookie; it's hard to keep small cookies chewy - at least 2 tablespoons if not more. Third, don't over bake. Fourth, Take cookies out of the oven when set around the edges but look a bit underdone in the center; they will continue to firm up on the baking sheet. Last, cookies become less chewy over time; store them in an airtight container.
Why shouldn't you use a nonstick pan for browning butter?
The dark coating makes it difficult to gauge when the butters sufficiently browned.
Does the brown sugars freshness matter in baking cookies?
Yes, hardened brown sugar will make cookies too dry.
How do you tell when dark colored cookies are finished?
Gently press halfway between the edge and center of the cookie. When it's done, it will form an indentation with slight resistance.
Browning the butter creates flavors such as what?
Butterscotch and toffee.
What happened to sugar cookies when butter was creamed?
It created cake, tender cookies.
What happened when the butter was cut into the flour for sugar cookies?
It produced crumbly cookies.
What did test kitchen do to their butter for chewy sugar cookies?
What helps boost the nutty flavor in cookies without adding more brown sugar?
What tends to make cookies cakey? Explain.
Why do most cookie recipes with brown sugar call for baking soda instead of powder? What about granulated?
Many baked goods with brown sugar call for baking soda instead of baking powder. This is because while granulated sugar is neutral, dark brown sugar can be slightly acidic.
What happened to brown sugar cookies when only baking soda was used?
The cookies had an open, coarse crumb and craggy top. Tasters loved craggy top but not the coarse crumb.
What happened to brown sugar cookies when only baking powder was used?
Cookies had a finer, tighter crumb but the craggy top disappeared.
What has more invert sugar, dark or light brown sugar?
Dark brown sugar.
Why did test kitchen use equal parts of dark brown and granulated sugar to roll the cookies dough?
Rolling the brown sugar cookies in more brown sugar further boosts their flavor but adding granulated sugar keeps the brown sugar from clumping.
Best way to story chewy cookies.
In a zipper-lock bag.
What happened when cookies were stored in zipper-lock bag after 5 days?
They became dry around the edges but were still acceptable.
What happened when cookies were stored in zipper-lock bag with an apple slice after 5 days?
Remained moist but started picking up the apple flavor.
What happened when cookies were stored in zipper-lock bag with white bread after 5 days?
The cookies became damp in parts that touched the bread; hygroscopic sugar in cookies attracted water from the bread - bread dried out and became brittle. Different amounts of bread all produced similar results.
Best way to return cookie' moisture.
Microwave for 30 seconds.
What do steel-cut oats do to cookies?
Make dry, pebbly cookies.
Best types of oats for baking.
Old-fashioned oats are far superior to other choices.
What do instant oats do to cookies?
Create dense, mealy cookies lacking good oat flavor.
What do quick-oats do to cookies?
They taste somewhat bland and cookies won't be quite as chewy.
Can the type of baking sheet you use (rimmed or rimless) affect the baking time of your cookies?
Why do rimmed baking sheets take longer to bake cookies?
Heat rises from the element at the bottom of the oven. A rimmed baking sheet's raised edges block the hot air currents, diverting them from the cookies to the top of the oven. A rimless baking sheet will allow the hot air to immediately sweep over the cookies, which means quicker baking.
Did rimmed sheet pans produce better results than flat?
No, they produced similar results.
How much faster does a rimless baking sheet cook cookies?
About 3 minutes.
Best ratio of dark brown to white sugar in chocolate chip cookies.
3:2 brown to white; light brown sugar works too but cookies will be less full flavored.
Does losing an egg white and only using the yolk create a chewier cookie?
Yes, too much white can make it cakey.
After melting and browning the butter in chocolate chip cookies, why would you whisk in the sugar and eggs, wait ten minutes, then stir again?
After 10 minutes, the sugar will have dissolved and the mixture will turn thick and shiny, like frosting. The finished cookies will emerge from the oven with a slightly glossy sheen and an alluring surface of cracks and crags, with a deep, toffee like flavor.
How does resting the sugar, melted butter and eggs help create better flavor and texture?
By allowing the sugar to rest in the liquid, more of it dissolves in the small amount of moisture before baking. The dissolved sugar caramelizes more easily and helps to create a cookie with crisp edges and a chewy center.
French term for browned butter.
Beurre noisette translates literally as "hazelnut butter."
What type of heat should you use to brown butter?
Medium to medium-high heat.
How long does browning butter take?
A couple tablespoons could take 3 minutes while a full cup could take 10; surface area and heat are also factors.
Why would you transfer beurre noisette into a different bowl when finished?
The residual heat can cause it to continue cooking, turning it into beurre noir.
What is happening to the dissolved sugar that creates crisp edges and flavor?
Dissolved sugar breaks down more quickly from crystalline sucrose into glucose and fructose, which caramelize at a lower temperature to form many new flavor compounds. As the dissolved, caramelized sugar cools, it takes on a brittle structure; more evident at the cookie's edges.
What is sugar a key ingredient in sherbets and sorbets?
Sugar is the key ingredient that determines the size of the frozen crystals and the overall texture of desserts.
When making cookies, what type of ingredient is sugar?
It is a liquid (dissolved) ingredient.
Why should you use fresh squeezed juice in a sherbet and not concentrate?
Concentrate has a cooked and less bright flavor.
Perfect sherbet is a cross between what?
Sorbet and ice cream; it contains fruit, dairy and sugar but no eggs.
Like its foreign cousin, sorbet, how should sherbet taste?
Fresh and vibrant; ideally, it's smooth as ice cream but devoid of its richness and weight.
Why does alcohol work in a sherbet?
It ensure the sherbet has a smooth, silky texture.
What does whipped cream do for sherbet?
Lightened the texture.
How much dairy is usually in a quart of sherbet?
Less than 1 cup.
How much dairy is usually in a quart of ice cream?
About 3 cups.
Best way to dissolve sugar for sherbet.
Right in the fruit juice for a concentrated base (no water needed).
Why is using cream for sherbet a better option than half and half or milk?
There's less water so it makes the sherbet less icy.
Best way to maximize zest is sherbet.
Grind the zest in, salt and sugar to maximize fruit flavor, then add juice and strain.
Why do you add salt to sherbet?
Balance the sweet and tart flavors.
Since you can only add so much sugar before sherbet becomes too sweet, what to you add to create an ideal texture? Explain.
Beaten egg whites, gelatin and corn syrup all work, but the best was alcohol. Like sugar, alcohol lowers the freezing point of water. In small amounts (they used 2 teaspoons), you can't taste the alcohol but it does have a significant effect on texture without influencing sweetness.
How do you add cream to a sherbet base?
After the cream is whipped, take the strained (and chilled) liquid and fold it into the whipped cream right before it goes into the ice cream machine.