Flashcards in CONCEPT 7: COOK TOUGH CUTS BEYOND WELL DONE Deck (48):
Two factors that promote muscle fiber growth.
Age and exercise.
Do muscle fiber shrink in diameter or length first? What temps does this occur?
First in diameter between 104 and 145 degrees and then in length above 145, expelling moisture as they contract.
Rate of moisture loss in meat become significant at what temp?
Predominant protein in connective tissue.
What does collagen look like?
Three protein chains tightly wound together in a triple-stranded helix; this makes it almost unchewable raw.
What happens when collagen begins to relax?
At 140 degrees the triple helix unwinds to form gelatin, a single-stranded protein able to retain up to 10 times its weight in moisture.
Ideal temp to hold tough cuts of meat.
160 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
What does gelatin to to sauces of braised meats?
Add a thick richness.
Conversion of collagen to gelatin.
Temperature and time dependent; the longer a meat is held at the ideal temp range the more collagen will break down.
Beef and pork cuts with little collagen shouldn't be cooked passed what temp?
Beef 130, pork 150
Why should collagen rich cuts be cooked extensively?
Too difficult to eat when cooked rare or medium rare.
Test kitchen: Oxtail and gelatin - 3 hours removing 1/4 C liquid every 30 minutes.
Every 30 minutes would yield a thicker liquid and the finally product had turned from liquid to a firm jelly when inverted on a plate.
Is oxtail collagen rich?
Yes, almost obscenely collagen rich.
Can collagen from meat thicken liquid?
Yes, the collagen in meat can produce enough gelatin to turn water into Jell-O.
A tough pork butt should be roasted for how long?
AT LEAST 5 hours
Two reasons bone-in pork roasts (Boston butt) are better than center cut loin for long roasting.
The bone acts as an insulator so meat surrounding it stays cooler. Bones have a large percentage of the meat's connective tissue attached to them.
Are bones a good conductor of heat?
What helps a roast boast a bronze, baconlike crust?
Why do high internal temperatures in roasts taste better than lean cuts of meat?
The heat encourages large amounts of intramuscular fat to melt, collagen breaks down into gelatin and the fat cap to render and crisp.
How do you avoid juice and bits from burning on the bottom of a roast?
V-rack and small amount of water poured in the bottom.
Classic accompaniments with pulled pork.
Dill pickle chips and coleslaw.
What's more zesty, paprika or sweet paprika?
Light brown sugar % of molasses.
3.5% by volume
Dark brown sugar % of molasses.
6.5% by volume.
Does brisket have a lot of intramuscular fat?
No, unlike other roasts it is relatively lean but still contains a lot of connective tissue; most of the fat is on the outside.
Is brining a brisket a good idea?
Yes, because it (flat cut) contains less intramuscular than other roasts brining will keep it juicier after hours of cooking. Not need for the point cut.
Cut from cow's breast section, a whole brisket is boneless, coarse-grained cut composed of two smaller roasts.
How many roasts in brisket?
The flat (or first) cut and the point (or second) cut.
Describe picture of whole brisket.
The knobby point cut overlaps the rectangular flat cut.
Is a flat cut (brisket) more heavily marbled than a point?
No, the point is more heavily marbled and the flat cut is lean and topped with a thick fat cap.
What wood turns bitter during the long process of barbecuing?
Name 3 types of fruitwoods.
Apple, cherry, peach.
What is the pink layer below barbecued meat called?
Do smoke rings affect taste?
What are smoke rings often mistaken for?
What external factors contribute to smoke rings?
When meat is cooked for long periods of time in a closed chamber at low temperatures.
What happens to color when an iron atom in myoglobin binds to oxygen?
It turns a striking bright red.
What happens to the iron atom in myoglobin and color of cooked meat?
The iron atom is oxidized and turns gray.
Chemically, how are smoke rings created?
When iron atoms of the meat's myoglobin bind to nitric oxide in the smoke, which dissolves in the moisture on the surface of the meat to create new compounds--similar to nitrates that keep deli meats pink.
What should you add water in a pan when barbecuing?
Allow enough moisture to create a smoke ring.
If iron atom: binds to Nitric Oxide
If iron atom: binds to oxygen
If iron atom: Oxidizes
Good accompaniments to braised brisket.
Egg noodles and mashed potatoes.
How do you prolong freshness of bay leaves?
Store in the freezer