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1

“he that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no
mortal can keep a secret. if the lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips;
betrayal oozes out of him at every pore. and thus the task of making
conscious the most hidden recesses of the mind is one which it is quite
possible to accomplish.

Sigmund Freud

2

the book which i present to the public is an attempt to mark out a new
domain of science. . . . the new discipline rests upon anatomical and
physiological foundations. . . . the experimental treatment of psychological
problems must be pronounced from every point of view to be in its
first beginnings.

Wilhelm Wundt

3

consciousness, then, does not appear to itself chopped up in bits. such
words as ‘chain’ or ‘train’ do not describe it fitly. . . . it is nothing jointed; it
flows. a ‘river’ or ‘stream’ are the metaphors by which it is most naturally
described.”

William James

4

in the traditional view, a person is free. . . . he can therefore be held
responsible for what he does and justly punished if he offends. that view,
together with its associated practices, must be reexamined when a scientific
analysis reveals unsuspected controlling relations between behavior
and environment

BF Skinner

5

i do not have a Pollyanna view of human nature. . . . Yet one of the most
refreshing and invigorating parts of my experience is to work with [my
clients] and to discover the strongly positive directional tendencies which
exist in them, as in all of us, at the deepest levels

Carl Rogers

6

our conclusion is that we have no real evidence of the inheritance of
traits. i would feel perfectly confident in the ultimately favorable outcome
of careful upbringing of a healthy, well-formed baby born of a long line of
crooks, murderers and thieves, and prostitutes

James Watson

7

researchers interviewed the parents of 141 children (all born in 1956)
every few months throughout childhood. Questions dealt with various
aspects of the children’s temperaments. the conclusion was that most
children fall into one of three temperamental categories: “easy,” “difficult,”
or “slow to warm up.

developmental psychology

8

it was discovered that rats will work extremely hard (pressing a lever, for
instance) to earn small amounts of electrical stimulation directed to specific
areas of their brains. research indicates that the human brain may
also contain similar “pleasure centers

physiological psychology

9

the sensation seeking scale (sss) was developed to measure individual
differences in the extent to which people prefer high or low levels of sensory
stimulation. People such as skydivers tend to score high on the sss,
while someone whose idea of a good time is settling down with a good
book would tend to score low.

Personality

10

a transmitter involved in the regulation of sleep, eating, and aggression

Serotonin

11

the two monoamines that have been linked to depression

Norepinephrine and serotonin

12

chemicals that resemble opiate drugs in structure and that are involved
in pain relief

Endorphins

13

a neurotransmitter for which abnormal levels have been implicated in
schizophrenia

dopamine

14

the only neurotransmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles

acetylcholine

15

imagine that you are working as a neuropsychologist at a clinic. You are involved in the diagnosis of the cases described below. You are asked to identify the probable cause(s) of the disorders in terms of nervous system malfunctions. Based on the information in this chapter, indicate the probable location of any brain damage or the probable disturbance of neurotransmitter activity: 

Miriam is exhibiting language deficits. in particular, she does not seem to
comprehend the meaning of words.

Left hemisphere damage, probably to Wernicke’s area.

16

imagine that you are working as a neuropsychologist at a clinic. You are involved in the diagnosis of the cases described below. You are asked to identify the probable cause(s) of the disorders in terms of nervous system malfunctions. Based on the information in this chapter, indicate the probable location of any brain damage or the probable disturbance of neurotransmitter activity: 

camille displays tremors and muscular rigidity and is diagnosed as having
Parkinson’s disease

Deficit in dopamine synthesis in an area of the midbrain

17

imagine that you are working as a neuropsychologist at a clinic. You are involved in the diagnosis of the cases described below. You are asked to identify the probable cause(s) of the disorders in terms of nervous system malfunctions. Based on the information in this chapter, indicate the probable location of any brain damage or the probable disturbance of neurotransmitter activity: 

Ricardo, a 28-year-old computer executive, has gradually seen his strength
and motor coordination deteriorate badly. he is diagnosed as having multiple
sclerosis

Deterioration of myelin sheaths surrounding axons.

18

imagine that you are working as a neuropsychologist at a clinic. You are involved in the diagnosis of the cases described below. You are asked to identify the probable cause(s) of the disorders in terms of nervous system malfunctions. Based on the information in this chapter, indicate the probable location of any brain damage or the probable disturbance of neurotransmitter activity: 

Wendy is highly irrational, has poor contact with reality, and reports hallucinations.
she is given a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder.

Disturbance in dopamine activity.

19

the findings from family studies indicate that heredity may influence a trait if
_____________ show more trait similarity than _____________.

Closer relatives; more distant relatives.

20

the findings from twin studies suggest that heredity influences a trait if
_____________ show more trait similarity than _____________.

Identical twins; fraternal twins.

21

the findings from adoption studies suggest that heredity influences a trait if children
adopted at a young age share more trait similarity with their _____________ than their
_____________.

Biological parents; adoptive parents.

22

the findings from family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies suggest that
heredity does not influence a trait when _____________ is not related to _____________.

Genetic overlap or closeness; trait similarity.

23

Dimension: Rods: Cones
1. Physical shape:
2. number in the retina 
3. area of the retina in which they are dominant receptor: 
4. critical to color vision:
5. critical to peripheral vision:
6. Sensitivity to dim light
7. Speed of dark adaptation 

1. Physical shape Elongated Stubby
2. Number in the retina 100 million 6 million
3. Area of the retina in which
they are dominant receptor
Periphery Center/fovea
4. Critical to color vision No Yes
5. Critical to peripheral vision Yes No
6. Sensitivity to dim light Strong Weak
7. Speed of dark adaptation Slow Rapid

24

Figure 4.22 describes and illustrates six pictorial depth
cues, most of which are apparent in the adjacent
photo. check your understanding of depth perception
by trying to spot the depth cues in the picture. In the
list below, check off the depth cues seen in the photo.

 

__________ 1. Interposition
__________ 2. height in plane
__________ 3. Texture gradient
__________ 4. relative size
__________ 5. light and shadow
__________ 6. linear perspective

1. Interposition. Some of the columns cut off parts of the statues behind
them.
2. Height in plane. The back of the corridor is higher on the horizontal
plane than the front of the corridor is.
3. Texture gradient. The squares on the floor become denser and less
distinct with increasing distance.

4. Relative size. The statues and columns in the distance are smaller than
those in the foreground.
5. Light and shadow. Light shining in from the windows on the right
contrasts with shadow elsewhere.
6. Linear perspective. The lines of the corridor converge in the distance.

25

check your understanding of both vision and hearing by comparing key aspects of sensation and perception in these senses.

1. Stimulus 
2. elements of  stimulus and  related perceptions
3. receptors 
4. location of receptors 
5. Main location of  processing in brain

Dimension Vision Hearing
1. Stimulus: Light waves Sound waves
2. Elements of the stimulus and related perceptions: Wavelength/hue Amplitude/brightness Purity/saturation Frequency/pitch Amplitude/loudness Purity/timbre
3. Receptors: Rods and cones;  Hair cells
4. Location of receptors: Retina and  Basilar membrane
5. Main location of processing in brain:  Occipital lobe, visual cortex Temporal lobe,
auditory cortex

26

Check your understanding of the three memory stores by filling in the blanks in the
table below.

Sensory memory  Short-term memory Long-term memory
Feature: 
1. Main encoding format:
2. storage capacity: 
3. storage duration:

1. Main encoding :Copy of input.   Largely phonemic.  Largely semantic
2. Storage Limited capacity.   Small.   No known limit
3. Storage duration: About ¼ second.   Up to 20 seconds.    Minutes to years

27

ellen can’t recall the reasons for the Webster-ashburton treaty because
she was daydreaming when it was discussed in history class.

ineffective encoding

28

rufus hates his job at taco heaven and is always forgetting when he is
scheduled to work.

Retrieval failure due to motivated forgetting.

29

ray’s new assistant in the shipping department is named Jason timberlake.
ray keeps calling him Justin, mixing him up with the singer Justin
timberlake.

Proactive interference (previous learning of Justin Timberlake’s name
interferes with new learning).

30

tania studied history on sunday morning and sociology on sunday
evening. it’s Monday, and she’s struggling with her history test because
she keeps mixing up prominent historians with influential sociologists.

Retroactive interference (new learning of sociology interferes with
older learning of history).