Concepts of Matter III. & IV. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Concepts of Matter III. & IV. Deck (10):
1

Concept of polar and non polar molecules

-substance that has a positive and negative end
-based on the electronegative difference
0 - 0.4 non polar covalent (has no - or +)
>0.4 - 1.75 polar covalent (has - and +)
> 1.75 ionic

2

Define acids and bases I

Arrhemiu' definition for an acid is any substance that in a solution increases the hydrogen ion concentration
-a base is any substance that in a solution increases the hydroxide ion concentration

3

Define acids and bases II

Bransted Lowry' definition for an acid is that it is a proton donor
-a base is a proton acceptor

4

Define acids and bases III

Lewis' definition for an acid is an electron pair acceptor
-a base is an electron pair donor

5

What is the pH concept

-a measure of the H+ ions in a solution
pH= -log[OH-]

6

Mole concept and avagadro's number

-a name for a given quantity of things (e.i dozen)
-a mole represents 6.02x10^23
-the mole concept was proposed by avagadro therefore 6.02x10^23 is avagadro's number

7

Concept of empirical and molecular formulas

-empirical formula is the formula written in the simplest whole number ratio, also called simplest formula
-a molecular formula gives the exact amount of atoms in a compound, it is not always in simplest form
Molecular formula = (empirical formula)(molecular mass / emperical formula mass)

8

Name and briefly describe the types of chemical reactions

1) Synthesis- two or more things are combined to form a substance
2) Decomposition- a substance breaks down into 2 or more simpler substance
3)Single displacement- one substance replaces another in a compound
4)Double Displacement- elements in compounds switches partners
5) Neutralization- occurs b/w an acid and base to produce a salt and water
6) Combustion- one of the reactant is osygen gas and the products are generally CO2 + H2O

9

Define oxidation numbers

-refers to the loss of electrons by an atom
-reduction refers to the gain of electrons by an atom
-the substance that is oxidized is the reducing agent, and the substance that is reduced is the oxidizing agent

10

What is a redox reaction

a reaction that has both reduction and oxidation occuring