Concepts Of Toxicology & Industrial Hygiene Principles- Done Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Concepts Of Toxicology & Industrial Hygiene Principles- Done Deck (106):
1

Reproductive hazards in the workplace are most associated with these exposures

1. Radiation
2. Lead
3. DBCP
4. Ethylene glycol ethers

2

Nephrotic ins are most associated with exposures to

Heavy metals and mercury

3

Toxicology defined

Study of adverse effects on biological systems

4

Definition of industrial hygiene includes

1. Anticipation
2. Recognition
3. Evaluation
4. Control

5

Example of a simple asphyxiate

Methane

6

Permissible exposure limits (PELs) outline by OSHA are considered safe

False

7

A chemical asphyxiant has no effect on other organs of the body

False

8

Pertains to an action of two or more substances, organs or organisms to achieve an effect greater than the additive effect of the separate elements

Synergistic effect

9

Interdisciplinary members of the occupational health and safety team for industrial hygiene

1. Management
2. Safety/industrial hygiene
3. Health care providers
4. Engineering/ergonomists/physicists
5. Employees, unions others as appropriate

10

Types of environmental stressors

1. Chemical
2. Physical
3. Biological
4. Ergonomic (human)

11

Chemical stressors

Materials such as:
1. Acids
2. Alkalis (corrosives)
3. Solvents
4. Minerals
5. Detergents
6. Paints
7. Pesticides

12

Types of chemical stressors

1. Mists
2. Vapors
3. Gases
4. Smoke
5. Dusts
6. Aerosol
7. Fumes

13

Physical stressors

Includes conditions produced by environment and processes

14

Examples of physical stressors

1. Noise
2. Temperature
3. Illumination
4. Vibration
5. Radiation (ionizing and non-ionizing)
6. Pressure

15

Biological stressors

Includes infectious living matter

16

Examples of biological stressors

1. Bacteria
2. Viruses
3. Fungus
4. Parasites
5. Plants
6. Insects
7. Animals

17

Ergonomic (human) stressors

Includes man-machine relationships, mental & emotional stresses

18

Examples of ergonomic stressors

1. Posture
2. Repetition
3. Force
4. Fatigue
5. Monotony
6. Awkward tasks
7. Increased physical demands
8. Conflict
9. Mental stress

19

Toxicity

The inherent capacity of a substance to cause harm or to produce injury/illness when it enters the body

20

Hazard

The probability that a substance will produce harm under specific conditions

21

Dose

-The single factor that determines the degree of harmfulness of a compound

22

Dose continuum

Point source emission
Human contact exposure
Potential dose to the body
Biologically effective/response dose to the target system
Early expression of disease
Health effect on endpoint

23

Response continuum

No response range
Range of increasing response with increasing dose
Maximum response range

24

Exposure

The quantity and extent of external contact with a toxic substance

25

Toxic response

An effect considered to be harmful to the biological system as a result of exposure to a chemical, biological or physical agent

26

BEI's

-biological exposure indices
- exposure limits based on levels of substances within the body
- based on levels of substances found in the body normally urine, blood or exhaled air
-measures the exposed individuals internal environment

27

Toxic agent

An agent capable of producing a harmful response in a biological system leading to serious injury, dysfunction or death

28

Safe limits

The practical certainty that a substance will not produce harm under specific conditions

29

Permissible exposure limits (PELs)

-used by OSHA
-chemical exposure can be measured, then compared to recognized standards for a healthful environment

30

Determinants of amount of hazard

1. Source of emissions (form)
2. How exposed (ventilation, working conditions, presence of other exposures, job activities)
3. How much (concentration, frequency)
4. How long (duration)
5. Temperature
6. Personal sensitivity
7. Functional condition of target organs and organs of detoxification
8. Age
9. Gender
10. Nutrition
11. Health status

31

Modes of entry of toxic substances into the body

1. Inhalation
2. Ingestion
3. Skin and eye absorption
4. Injection

32

LD50

Dose of toxic substance which will produce death in 50% of the animals

33

Items that influence LD50

1. Species
2. Route of administration
3. Vehicle
4. Time period

34

Most common route of exposure in test animals

Intraperitoneal

35

LC50

-Lethal concentration for 50% of the exposed organisms in the air
-Like LD50 it is determined statistically using the proportions of animals killed from several different dose/exposure groups

36

Factors influencing intensity of toxic action

1. Rate of entry
2. Additive interaction
3. Synergistic effect
4. Potentiation
5. Antagonism
6. Effect of toxins in the body

37

Types of rate of entry

1. Acute
2. Chronic

38

Acute effects

-Immediate damage to skin, eyes, lungs or stomach etc
-may be felt right away or have a delayed reaction

39

Chronic effects

Damage may build up from long range exposure over weeks, months, years

40

Additive interaction

Describes the concept of combined effects from more than one route of exposure

41

Example of additive interaction

Inhalation and ingestion of the same substance

42

Synergistic

Pertaining to an action of two or more substances, organs or organisms to achieve a greater effect that he additive effects of the separate element

43

Potentiation

Refers to the action of a substance, thereby maintaining elevated systemic levels of the toxic agent

44

Example of potentiation

Alcohol consumption combined with lead exposure increases the absorption of lead through the GI tract, potentiating the toxicity of lead

45

Antagonism

Refers to an effect that is less severe than expected when a substance prevents the absorption of a toxic substance

46

Modes of excretion

1. Urine
2. Perspiration
3. Milk
4. Spinal fluid
5. Saliva
6. Hair

47

Biotransformation

Transformed into substance that can be excreted

48

Half-life

Where it's stored and length of storage in the body

49

Location and duration of PCB storage

-fatty tissue
-lifetime

50

Physical states of chemical contaminants

1. Dust
2. Fiber
3. Fume
4. Gas
5. Vapor
6. Mist

51

Dust

Solid particles
Also fibrous

52

Fiber

Regular shape
Usually three times longer than it is wide

53

Examples of fibers

1. Asbestos
2. Fiberglass

54

Fume

Particle in heated gaseous state

55

Gas

Formless matter

56

Vapor

Gaseous form of liquid

57

Mist

Suspended liquid droplets

58

Physiological classifications of chemical contaminants/target organs

1. Irritants
2. Asphyxiants
3. Narcotic
4. Hepatotoxins
5. Nephrotoxins
6. Neurotoxins
7. Hematopoietic agents
8. Agents which damage the lung
9. Carcinogen
10. Mutagen
11. Teratogen
12. Reproductive effects

59

Types of irritants

1. Primary
2. Secondary

60

Primary irritants

No system action

61

Examples of primary irritants

Acids

62

Secondary irritants

Other organs are affected

63

Examples of secondary irritants

Hydrogen sulfide (produces olfactory fatigue)

64

Types of asphyxiants

1. Simple
2. Chemical

65

Simple asphyxiants

Displace enough oxygen to create a hazard

66

Percent of oxygen in air the creates hazard

Usually below 16%

67

Normal oxygen content in air

21%

68

Oxygen content permissible to enter a confined space

19.5%

69

Example of simple asphyxiant

Methane

70

Chemical asphyxiant

Unable to utilize adequate oxygen supply

71

Examples of chemical asphyxiants

1. Carbon monoxide
2. Cyanide

72

Narcotic

Causes simple anesthesia without serious systemic effects

73

Examples of narcotics

1. Solvents
2. Alcohols
3. Nitrous oxide
4. Glues

74

Hepatotoxins

Liver damage

75

Examples of Hepatotoxins

1. Carbon tetrachloride
2. Chlordane
3. Vinyl chloride

76

Most common Hepatotoxins

Chlorinated solvents

77

Nephrotoxins

Toxins that cause kidney damage

78

Examples of nephrotoxins

1. Heavy metals (commonly mercury)
2. Chlorinated solvents
3. Coke oven emissions
4. Benzedine
5. Arsine

79

Main use for benzidine

Dye

80

Smell of arsine

Garlic

81

Neurotoxins

Toxins that cause nervous system damage

82

Examples of neurotoxins

1. Methyl mercury
2. Carbon disulfide
3. Lead
4. Carbon monoxide
5. Manganese
6. Heavy metals
7. Organophosphates
8. Mercury

83

Common neurological effects of manganese

Parkinson-like effects

84

Common neurological effects of heavy metals

Peripheral neuropathy

85

Common neurological effects of lead

Wrist drop and foot drop

86

Common neurological effects of mercury

"Mad Hatter" syndrome

87

Hematopoietic agents

Agents that act in the blood forming organs

88

Examples of hematopoietic agents

1. Benzene
2. Ionizing radiation
3. Arsine
4. TNT

89

Common hematopoietic effects of benzene

1. Aplastic anemia
2. Leukemia

90

Common hematopoietic effects of ionizing radiation

Leukemia

91

Types of damage toxins can have on the lungs

1. Pneumoconioses
2. Sensitization
3. Fibrosis
4. Carcinogen

92

Examples of pneumoconioses

Hydrogen chloride

93

Examples of sensitization agents

Isocyanates

94

Examples of agents that cause fibrosis

1. Silica
2. Asbestos
3. Beryllium

95

Examples of carcinogens for the lungs

1. Asbestos
2. Arsenic
3. Chromium VI

96

Carcinogen

A substance that can cause cancer

97

Mutagen

A substance that can affect the chromosomes

98

Teratogen

A substance that can affect the fetus

"monster forming"

99

Agents that can affect the reproductive system

1. Ionizing radiation
2. Heat
3. Carbon disulfide
4. Ethylene oxide
5. Rubella
6. Varicella

100

Reproductive effects of ionizing radiation

1. Decreased sperm
2. Decreased female fertility

101

Reproductive effects of heat

Decreased sperm

102

Reproductive effects of carbon disulfide

Decreased female fertility

103

Reproductive effects of ethylene oxide

Spontaneous abortions

104

Reproductive effects of rubella

Congenital defects

105

Reproductive effects of varicella

Congenital defects

106

An aerosol of solid particles generated by welding on heavy metals is...

Fume

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